Learning Disabilities in Arithmetic and Mathematics Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives

  title={Learning Disabilities in Arithmetic and Mathematics Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives},
  author={David C. Geary and Mary K. Hoard},
The breadth and complexity of the field of mathematics make the identification and study of the cognitive phenotypes that define learning disabilities in mathematics (MD) a formidable endeavor. A learning disability can result from deficits in the ability to represent or process information in one or all of the many mathematical domains (e.g., geometry) or in one or a set of individual competencies within each domain. The goal is further complicated by the task of distinguishing poor… 

Figures from this paper

Mathematical learning difficulties subtypes classification
This contribution provides an overview of the most relevant hypotheses in the present day's literature regarding possible deficits that lead to MLD and of possible classifications of MLD subtypes and proposes a classification model for MLD describing four basic cognitive domains within which specific deficits may reside.
The contribution of general cognitive abilities and approximate number system to early mathematics.
Memory and ANS seemed to influence early mathematics almost independently, and general and specific precursors seemed to have a crucial role in early math competences, despite the lower involvement of ANS.
Mathematics learning performance and Mathematics learning difficulties in China
Mathematics is a critical ability of human beings in modern society. Cross-cultural studies provide us with information about the way specific variables and processes contribute to mathematics
Cognitive Characteristics of Children With Mathematics Learning Disability (MLD) Vary as a Function of the Cutoff Criterion Used to Define MLD
Differences in student characteristics based on the definition of MLD are highlighted and the value of examining skill areas associated with math performance in addition to math performance itself is illustrated.
Beyond the “Third Method” for the Assessment of Developmental Dyscalculia: Implications for Research and Practice
  • V. Reigosa-Crespo
  • Psychology
    International Handbook of Mathematical Learning Difficulties
  • 2019
There has been a continuous debate on different criteria on assessment of mathematical learning disability (MLD). Originally, MLD was defined as an unexpected failure to acquire basic mathematics
The Cognitive Origins of Mathematics Learning Disability: A Review
Mathematics learning disability, or dyscalculia, is a specific learning disability that affects an individual’s ability to learn about and process numerical or mathematical information. Although
Observing and analyzing children’s mathematical development, based on action theory
Children who experience difficulties with learning mathematics should be taught by teachers who focus on the child’s best way of learning. Analyses of the mathematical difficulties are necessary for
Can we predict mathematical learning disabilities from symbolic and non-symbolic comparison tasks in kindergarten? Findings from a longitudinal study.
Regression analyses showed that non-symbolic skills in kindergarten were predictively related to arithmetical achievement 1 year later and fact retrieval 2 years later and AN comparison was predictivelyrelated to procedural calculation2 years later.
Mental Arithmetic in Children With Mathematics Learning Disabilities
The adaptive use of approximate calculation was examined using a verification task with third graders with mathematics learning disabilities, typically achievingThird graders, and typically achieving second graders were sensitive to answer plausibility on simple problems, and both typically achieving groups were faster at rejecting extremely incorrect results than at accepting correct answers on complex addition problems.


Numerical and arithmetical cognition: patterns of functions and deficits in children at risk for a mathematical disability.
Performance on the experimental tasks provides insights into the cognitive deficits underlying different forms of LD, as well as into the sources of individual differences in academic achievement.
Cognitive Analysis of Children's Mathematics Difficulties
The aim of the study is to investigate the informal and formal mathematical knowledge of children suffering from "mathematics difficulty" (MD). The research involves comparisons among three groups:
Numerical and arithmetical cognition: a longitudinal study of process and concept deficits in children with learning disability.
The children with variable achievement test performance did not differ from the academically normal children in any cognitive domain, whereas the children in the LD groups showed specific patterns of cognitive deficit, above and beyond the influence of IQ.
A componential analysis of an early learning deficit in mathematics.
  • D. Geary
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental child psychology
  • 1990
Development of arithmetical competencies in Chinese and American children: influence of age, language, and schooling.
The pattern of arithmetical development across the academic year and across the Chinese and American children suggests that a mix of cultural and maturational factors influence the emergence of early arithmetic competencies and that the Chinese advantage in early mathematical development is related to a combination of language- and school-related factors.
A longitudinal study of mathematical competencies in children with specific mathematics difficulties versus children with comorbid mathematics and reading difficulties.
At the end of 3rd grade the MD only group performed better than the MD-RD group in problem solving but not in calculation, while the NA and RD only groups performed better in most areas.
Performance across different areas of mathematical cognition in children with learning difficulties.
The performance of 210 2nd graders in different areas of mathematical cognition was examined. Children were divided into 4 achievement groups: children with difficulties in mathematics but not in
Developmental Differences in Solving Simple Arithmetic Word Problems and Simple Number-fact Problems: A Comparison of Mathematically Normal and Mathematically Disabled Children
The research reported in this paper was designed in a cross-sectional perspective to examine differences between mathematically disabled children (MD children) and mathematically normal children (MN
The acquisition of arithmetic in normal children: assessment by a cognitive model of dyscalculia.
The authors conclude that this battery assesses number knowledge, and use of the fifth centile as a cut-off point will aid in identification of children with mental dyscalculia.