Learning Disabilities: The Social Construction of a Special Education Category

@article{Sleeter1986LearningDT,
  title={Learning Disabilities: The Social Construction of a Special Education Category},
  author={Christine E. Sleeter},
  journal={Exceptional Children},
  year={1986},
  volume={53},
  pages={46 - 54}
}
  • C. Sleeter
  • Published 1 September 1986
  • Education
  • Exceptional Children
This article reinterprets the history of learning disabilities, situating it in the context of the movement to reform education after Sputnik. After Sputnik, standards for reading achievement were raised and students were tested more rigorously and grouped for instruction based on achievement level. Students unable to keep up with raised standards were placed into one of five categories. Four of the categories were used primarily to explain the failures of lower class and minority children… 
History, Politics, and the General Education Initiative: Sleeter's Reinterpretation of Learning Disabilities as a Case Study
A general education initiative has recently been suggested as a solution for problems related to special education eligibility and management of mildly handicapped students. This approach treats
Developmental Disabilities and the Concept of School Readiness
This paper reviews the concept of school readiness as it applies to children with disabilities. It is argued that children with disabilities are of two primary types: normative and non-normative. The
Response to Intervention in Literacy: Problems and Possibilities
Evidence suggests that it is possible to substantially reduce the number of children classified as learning disabled in literacy. The 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities
Sociological Theories of Learning Disabilities: Understanding Racial Disproportionality in Special Education
Many researchers have applied sociological theory to concepts of physical disability, leading to the “social model” used by disability advocates and activists, but less work has been done to provide
Learning Disability Identification Criteria
The growth in the number of learning disabled students has led many school systems to adopt practices to decrease the number of referrals in the learning disabilities category. One strategy used in
Romantic Agrarianism and Movement Education in the United States: Examining the discursive politics of learning disability science
The learning disability construct gained scientific and political legitimacy in the United States in the 1960s as an explanation for some forms of childhood learning difficulties. In 1975, federal
Pedagogy, Special Education, and the Lives of Young Children: A Critical and Futuristic Perspective
A critical view is taken of the predominant positivist-empiricist assumptions that underlie most theories in the social sciences and which have had enormous influence on special education. These
“Truly Disabled?”
The construct of learning disabilities has been challenged pedagogically, politically, and in the judiciary. Some claim that learning disabilities are socially constructed and created by misdirected
A Social Constructionist Approach to Disability: Implications for Special Education
Proponents of a social model of disability derive their arguments from social constructionism. They combine different disabling conditions under one term: disability. Subsequently, they apply the
Reintegrating Students with Learning Disabilities into the Mainstream: A Two-Year Study.
AUTHOR Fuchs, Douglas; And Others TITLE Reintegrating Students with Learning Disabilities into the Mainstream: A Two-Year Study. INSTITUTION Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN. Peabody Coll. SPONS
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 110 REFERENCES
Student Social Class and Teacher Expectations: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Ghetto Education
Many studies have shown that academic achievement is highly correlated with social class. Few, however, have attempted to explain exactly how the school helps to reinforce the class structure of the
Teacher Attitudes Associated with the Integration of Handicapped Children
TLDR
The results indicated the resource room program had slight to moderate effects on teachers' attitudes and raised questions concerning the feasibility of integrating educable mentally retarded children into regular classes in schools utilizing the conventional grade organizational pattern.
Similarities and Differences Between Low Achievers and Students Classified Learning Disabled
Considerable evidence suggests that the learning-disabilities (LD) category is primarily one of underachievement. The research reported here compared school-identified LD children with a group of
The Nature of Literacy: An Historical Exploration.
In this article Daniel and Lauren Resnick bring an historical perspective to the present debate over reading achievement. From an historical examination of selected European and American models of
Ethnic Proportions in Classes for the Learning Disabled: Issues in Nonbiased Assessment
Data from a large racially representative sample of school children show that the trend toward placing minority students into special education classes in disproportionate numbers has been
Regular and Special Class Teachers' Perceptions of Normal and Exceptional Children and Their Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming.
This study compared regular and special teachers' descriptions of a hypothetical educable mentally handicapped (EMH) child, a hypothetical learning disabled (LD) child, and a hypothetical normal
Ethnic and Social Status Characteristics of Children in EMR and LD Classes
TLDR
The purpose of this study was to determine the ethnic and social status characteristics of children enrolled in EMR and LD classes (grades 1 to 8) in the state of Missouri.
The Inequality of Educational Opportunity in the Southwest: An Observational Study of Ethnically Mixed Classrooms
This study assesses teacher behaviors as a factor in the quality of educational opportunity afforded students of different ethnic groups within the schools of the Southwest United States. Observers
The Learning-Disabilities Test Battery: Empirical and Social Issues
In an extensive review of validation studies on the ten most frequently recommended procedures used for diagnosing learning disabilities, Gerald Coles evaluates the special knowledge claims made by
Bias in Teachers' Observations of Emotionally Disturbed and Learning Disabled Children
TLDR
The research of McCarthy and Paraskevopoulos (1969) is frequently cited as supporting the contention that teachers perceive problem behaviors in these groups as differing in number and degree of severity.
...
...