Learned helplessness in humans: critique and reformulation.

  title={Learned helplessness in humans: critique and reformulation.},
  author={Lyn Y. Abramson and Martin E. P. Seligman and John D. Teasdale},
  journal={Journal of abnormal psychology},
  volume={87 1},
The learned helplessness hypothesis is criticized and reformulated. The old hypothesis, when applied to learned helplessness in humans, has two major problems: (a) It does not distinguish between cases in which outcomes are uncontrollable for all people and cases in which they are uncontrollable only for some people (univervsal vs. personal helplessness), and (b) it does not explain when helplessness is general and when specific, or when chronic and when acute. A reformulation based on a… Expand
A re-view of cognitive mediators in learned helplessness.
  • H. Tennen
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality
  • 1982
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