Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence.

@article{Maier1976LearnedHT,
  title={Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence.},
  author={Steven F. Maier and Martin E. P. Seligman},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Psychology: General},
  year={1976},
  volume={105},
  pages={3-46}
}
\, SUMMARY In 1967, Overmier and Seligman found that dogs exposed to inescapable and unavoidable electric shocks in one situation later failed to learn to escape shock in a different situation where escape was possible. Shortly thereafter Seligman and Maier (1967) demonstrated that this effect was caused by the uncontrollability of the original shocks. In this article we review the effects of exposing organisms to aversive events which they cannot control, and we review the explanations which… Expand
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