Learned helplessness, test anxiety, and academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

@article{Fincham1989LearnedHT,
  title={Learned helplessness, test anxiety, and academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis.},
  author={Frank D. Fincham and Audrey J. Hokoda and Reliford Sanders},
  journal={Child development},
  year={1989},
  volume={60 1},
  pages={
          138-45
        }
}
The stability of individual differences in test anxiety and learned helplessness over a 2-year period and their relation to concurrent and future school achievement were examined. Several issues regarding the assessment of learned helplessness are also addressed. 82 children were administered measures of test anxiety and helplessness in the third grade and again in the fifth grade. Teachers also provided reports of learned helpless and mastery-oriented behaviors at these 2 grade levels. It was… CONTINUE READING

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