Learned Fear of “Unseen” Faces after Pavlovian, Observational, and Instructed Fear

@article{Olsson2004LearnedFO,
  title={Learned Fear of “Unseen” Faces after Pavlovian, Observational, and Instructed Fear},
  author={Andreas Olsson and Elizabeth A. Phelps},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  year={2004},
  volume={15},
  pages={822 - 828}
}
This study compared fear learning acquired through direct experience (Pavlovian conditioning) and fear learning acquired without direct experience via either observation or verbal instruction. We examined whether these three types of learning yielded differential responses to conditioned stimuli (CS+) that were presented unmasked (available to explicit awareness) or masked (not available to explicit awareness). In the Pavlovian group, the CS+ was paired with a mild shock, whereas the… 

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