Leading questions and the eyewitness report

  title={Leading questions and the eyewitness report},
  author={Elizabeth F. Loftus},
  journal={Cognitive Psychology},
  • E. Loftus
  • Published 1 October 1975
  • Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology

Figures and Tables from this paper

The effect of postevent information on adults' eyewitness reports
The present experiment examined the conditions under which adults' reports of an event are influenced by information encountered after the event occurred. Adults were exposed to neutral, leading, and
Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory.
The results suggest that information to which a witness is exposed after an event, whether that information is consistent or misleading, is integrated into the witness's memory of the event.
The influence of the wording of interrogatives on the accuracy of eyewitness recollections
Previous research has demonstrated that the content of eyewitness recollections is affected by suggestions conveyed during questioning. For the present study, we took advantage of an unexpected
Retrieval-induced forgetting in an eyewitness-memory paradigm
Repeated interrogation of a witness can modify the witness’s memory-enhancing the recall of certain details while inducing the forgetting of other details-even when no misinformation is contained or implied in the questioning.
Leading questions and memory: Pragmatic constraints
Memory for directly and indirectly experienced events
Retention was examined for an event that was experienced either directly or indirectly. In the first experiment, subjects witnessed a staged event in their classroom involving an argument between two
Does Lexical Marking Affect Eyewitness Recall
Abstract Four experiments examined the effect of lexical marking on eyewitness recall. In Experiments 1 and 2, subjects viewed a videotaped reenactment of a purse snatching; in Experiment 3, they
Changing scenes: Memory for naturalistic events following change blindness
It is suggested that attentional limitations during encoding contribute to biases in episodic memory when changes occur during a visual disruption such as a saccade or a movie cut.
When Misinformation Improves Memory
The research agrees with other findings from retroactive-interference paradigms and can be interpreted within the recursive-remindings framework, according to which detecting and remembering change can enhance retention.
Post-event information presented in a question form eliminates the misinformation effect.
It is demonstrated that post- event information presented as an affirmative statement produced the misinformation effect and post-event information presented in a question form, regardless of whether it contained a misleading or studied item, increased the recall of correct information and reduced false recall.


Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory.
This paper describes and evaluates explanations offered by these theories to account for the effect of extralist cuing, facilitation of recall of list items by nonlist items.
Pattern recognition by machine
Except for their inability to recognize patterns, machines have now met most of the classic criteria of intelligence that skeptics have proposed.
Computers and Thought
Computers and Thought showcases the work of the scientists who not only defined the field of Artificial Intelligence, but who are responsible for having developed it into what it is today. Originally
Understanding natural language
A computer system for understanding English that contains a parser, a recognition grammar of English, programs for semantic analysis, and a general problem solving system based on the belief that in modeling language understanding, it must deal in an integrated way with all of the aspects of language—syntax, semantics, and inference.
Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology
Part I. Experimental Studies: 2. Experiment in psychology 3. Experiments on perceiving III Experiments on imaging 4-8. Experiments on remembering: (a) The method of description (b) The method of
Active Semantic Networks as a Model of Human Memory
The method by wh ich noun phrases ope ra te and t h e p rocess f o r t he d e t e r m i n e r "t h e " i s p r e s e n t e d .
Effects of comprehension on retention of prose