Lead and the deafness of Ludwig van Beethoven

@article{Stevens2013LeadAT,
  title={Lead and the deafness of Ludwig van Beethoven},
  author={Michael H Stevens and T. Jacobsen and Alicia Kay Crofts},
  journal={The Laryngoscope},
  year={2013},
  volume={123}
}
To reexamine the cause of Beethoven's hearing loss because of significant recent articles. 
A Modern Case Sheds Light on a Classical Enigma: Beethoven's Deafness
TLDR
The health issues of the modern patient were found to be due to chronic lead intoxication, which was released during daily cooking using a ceramic‐coated frying pan with worn surface that poisoned her breakfast most probably for years.
In Reference to Beethoven's Deafness
TLDR
Brottosuggests that lead poisoning causes a variety of symptoms that, depending on the time of exposure and healthcare support, are extremely variable from person to person, and Reubens indicates there is another explanation for Beethoven’s lack of wrist drop.
In Response to Beethoven's Deafness
TLDR
It is the belief that, among the multiple hypotheses proposed over the centuries, chronic lead poisoning seems to be the most founded, probable, and in the end realistic.
Does lead take the lead as the best explanation for Beethoven deafness?
TLDR
The authors state that few data are available about the prevalence and extent of hearing loss induced by chronic lead exposure, concluding that it is difficult to associate Beethoven’s deafness with a chronic lead intoxication, and the presence of high lead values deep in the bones of beethoven's body should be considered as particularly relevant to sustain this hypothesis.
In Response to In Reference to A modern Case Sheds Light on a Classical Enigma: Beethoven's Deafness
TLDR
It is appropriate to call to attention the possibility that Beethoven’s various symptoms were cochlear migraine-related, and it is concur that lead poisoning remains a highly probable cause.
Aetiology of Ludwig van Beethoven’s hearing impairment: hypotheses over the past 100 years – A systematic review
TLDR
Over the past 100 years, otosclerosis and syphilis were predominantly supposed to be the underlying causes, but the hypothesis of syphilis—although rejected for a long time—has had a remarkable revival during the past 20 years.
Beethoven: His Hearing Loss and His Hearing Aids.
  • A. Perciaccante, A. Coralli, Neil G Bauman
  • Medicine
    Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • 2020
TLDR
The ear trumpets, and the resonant plate that engineer Johan Nepomuk Maelzel and piano-maker Conrad Graf constructed to try to improve Beethoven's hearing are analyzed and described.
Tertiary Syphilis (General Paralysis of the Insane) and Bipolar Disorder; the role of these two disorders in the life of famous composers.
TLDR
The works of the classical composers Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann and Smetana, who all suffered from mental illness, are used to gain an insight into what it is like to live with these conditions.
Beethoven's autopsy revisited: A pathologist sounds a final note
  • S. Oiseth
  • Medicine
    Journal of medical biography
  • 2017
TLDR
Paget's disease, complicated by hyperparathyroidism, gout, and attempts to find relief of symptoms through the use of alcohol, quinine, and possibly salicylates can explain virtually all of Beethoven's medical problems, some of which appear to have influenced his musical compositions.
In memoriam Ludwig van Beethoven. Clinical history and possible diagnoses of the genius of musical composition in silence
In this tragic 2020, year of a pandemic, confinement, and uncertainty, the 250th anniversary of the birth of one of history’s most outstanding musicians is commemorated. The anniversary celebrations
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References

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The deafness of Beethoven: an audiologic and medical overview.
  • P. Shearer
  • Medicine
    The American journal of otology
  • 1990
TLDR
The author concludes with the majority of otologists that cochlear otosclerosis is the most likely diagnosis for the hearing loss of Ludwig von Beethoven.
Beethoven's Deafness
  • B. Mccabe
  • Medicine
    The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • 1958
The natural history of Beethoven's deafness, together with a judicious examination of pertinent necropsy findings, provides adequate evidence for a chronic, progressive perceptive deafness. Marked
Diagnosing Genius. The Life and Death of Beethoven
  • D. Tomkins
  • Psychology
    British Journal of Psychiatry
  • 2009
![Figure][1] It is lucky for us that Ludwig van Beethoven was more well-known than most during his lifetime as much more information about his life (and death) survives as a consequence. Francois
Beethoven in Person: His Deafness, Illnesses, and Death
Preface Beethoven's Physicians and Their Treatments The Accounts of Beethoven's Deafness Beethoven's Appearance Final Illness, Death, and Burial The Autopsy The Exhumations The Question of Venereal
The Deafness of Ludwig Van Beethoven: an Immunopathy
  • C. Karmody, E. Bachor
  • Medicine
    Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • 2005
TLDR
The conclusion is that Beethoven's sensorineural hearing loss was an immunopathy associated with IBD, which provides a single entity that explains most of the composer's symptoms and was finally the cause of his death.
The Causes of Beethoven's Death and His Locks of Hair: A Forensic-Toxicological Investigation
IN DECEMBER 1994 FOUR MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN BEETHOVEN SOCIETY PURCHASED A LOCK OF 582 STRANDS OF BEETHOVEN'S HAIR at an auction at Sotheby's, London. ' The majority portion of the lock (422
Beethoven's deafness.
To the Editor.— After reading the thorough article on Beethoven's deafness which covered it from every angle and point of view and eliminated most of the diseases and afflictions which might have
MIRACULOUS RECOVERY? HANDEL’S ILLNESSES, THE NARRATIVE TRADITION OF HEROIC STRENGTH AND THE ORATORIO TURN
The image of the heroic Handel, typified by claims of immense physical and mental toughness, and rapid – even miraculous – recovery, may satisfy the credulous, but it needs considerable modification
The Letters of Beethoven
This edition, which includes virtually all the letters of Beethoven and other relevant documents, covers a period of forty years, from 1787 to 1827. It is thus an indispensable source book for a
AUTOIMMUNE SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS
TLDR
This review focuses on the recent progress in understanding of the aetio-pathogenesis of autoimmune hearing loss along with a description of the various clinical conditions in which they occur.
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