Layered space-time architecture for wireless communication in a fading environment when using multi-element antennas

  title={Layered space-time architecture for wireless communication in a fading environment when using multi-element antennas},
  author={Gerard J. Foschini},
  journal={Bell Labs Technical Journal},
  • G. Foschini
  • Published 1 June 1996
  • Computer Science
  • Bell Labs Technical Journal
This paper addresses digital communication in a Rayleigh fading environment when the channel characteristic is unknown at the transmitter but is known (tracked) at the receiver. Inventing a codec architecture that can realize a significant portion of the great capacity promised by information theory is essential to a standout long-term position in highly competitive arenas like fixed and indoor wireless. Use (nT, nR) to express the number of antenna elements at the transmitter and receiver. An… 

Capacity When Using Diversity at Transmit and Receive Sites and the Rayleigh-faded Matrix Channel is Unknown at the Transmitter

The derivations hint at the existence of an architecture with extraordinary capacity that can be approached using one dimensional codecs as building blocks, termed the layered space-time architecture because of the way signals are stratified along diagonals in space- time.

Capacity of a Mobile Multiple-Antenna Communication Link in Rayleigh Flat Fading

Analysis of a mobile wireless link comprising M transmitter and N receiver antennas operating in a Rayleigh flat-fading environment concludes that, for a fixed number of antennas, the capacity approaches the capacity obtained as if the receiver knew the propagation coefficients.

Space-time coding schemes for wireless communications over flat fading channels

A novel systematic code construction method, diagonal block ST coding, which demonstrates promising results at the commonly assumed high SNR at a point-to-point wireless environment.

Space-Time Coding Schemes for Wireless Communications over Flat Fading Channels

A novel systematic code construction method, diagonal block ST coding, which demonstrates promising results at the commonly assumed high SNR at a point-to-point wireless environment.

BER Performance Analysis of Alamouti Coding Technique in Rayleigh Fading Channel

This paper has tested the performance of Alamouti coding technique for the Rayleigh channel using multiple transmit antennas using space-time coding technique and simulation results are used to compare and analyze the performance.

Widely linear reception strategies for layered space-time wireless communications

It is shown that this detection strategy may be applied to wireless communication systems employing multiple transmit and receive antennas and adopting a noncircular modulation and that the improved receivers outperform the conventional ones both in terms of the error probability and of the capacity to cope with the power disparities that the fading channel may induce on the data streams transmitted by different antennas.

Using multipath fading to increase performance of wireless communication systems

This thesis describes current and future methods of overcoming fading, such as receive and Space-Time diversity, and introduction into Multiple In Multiple Out systems that actually utilize the multiple fading to increase the data rate of wireless communication systems.


A Layered space-time architecture for wireless communication in flat Raleigh fading environment with multiple antennas is designed and demonstrated that when the fading coefficients are statistically independent and known at the receiver, the capacity of the link increases linearly with the increased number of transmit and receive antennas.

Spatial channel properties and spectral efficiency of blast architecture

The Bell Labs Layered Space-Time (BLAST) architecture has been recently proposed as an extremely efficient tool for wireless communications in rich multipath environment and bit rates as high as 40 bits/s/Hz has been achieved for indoor communications.

Space-time coding and transmission optimization for wireless channels

  • A. TehraniR. NegiJ. Cioffi
  • Business, Computer Science
    Conference Record of Thirty-Second Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (Cat. No.98CH36284)
  • 1998
It is shown that when the channel has no ISI, then adaptive antennas, in the form of beamforming, can be combined with delay-diversity coding to achieve a diversity gain of mL and a large coding gain, whenever n/spl ges/L.



On Limits of Wireless Communications in a Fading Environment when Using Multiple Antennas

Some basic information theory results that promise great advantages of using MEAs in wireless LANs and building to building wireless communication links are presented and standard approaches such as selection and optimum combining are seen to be deficient when compared to what will ultimately be possible.

The impact of antenna diversity on the capacity of wireless communication systems

For a broad class of interference-dominated wireless systems including mobile, personal communications, and wireless PBX/LAN networks, the authors show that a significant increase in system capacity

Optimum mean-square decision feedback equalization

It is shown that, in all cases of practical interest, signaling faster than the Nyquist rate, while keeping fixed the information rate, increases the mean-square error.

Theory of minimum mean-square-error QAM systems employing decision feedback equalization

This work considers the application of decision feedback equalization to quadratures-amplitude modulation (QAM) transmission, in which two independent information streams modulate quadrature carriers, and derives the form of the optimum receiver filters via a matrix Wiener-Hopf analysis.

The capacity of linear channels with additive Gaussian noise

The standard method of computing the mutual information between two stochastic processes with finite energy replaces the processes with their Fourier coefficients. This procedure is mathematically

Information, weight of evidence, the singularity between probability measures and signal detection

The major results in this survey are Gaussian processes with equal covariance functions including nonrandom signals in gaussian noise and rate of expected weight of evidence.

Spectral Analysis of Networks with Random Topologies

A class of neural models is introduced in which the topology of the neural network has been generated by a controlled probability model. It is shown that the resulting linear operator has a spectral

Information and Information Stability of Random Processes

  • Holden Bay, San Francisco,
  • 1964

Shannon’s Theorems for a Complete Class of Discrete Channels Whose State Is Known at the Output,” Problems of Information Transmission, No

  • 11, Plenum Press, New York, November
  • 1976

Decision feedback equalization

It is shown that the linear equalizer is in fact a portion of the D FE receiver and that the processing done by the DFE is exactly equivalent to the general problem of linear prediction.