INTRODUCTION Tuberculosis occurrence was evaluated in patients that applied tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis and currently receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blocker. MATERIALS AND METHODS Incidence of tuberculosis were retrospectively evaluated in patients that currently receiving TNF-α-blocking therapy and received tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis at Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, Lung Disease Department, between 2006-2013 years. 134 patients that were diagnosed with rheumatologic and dermatologic diseases, were evaluated. Patients were in the age range 18-80 years. Age, gender, smoking status, BCG vaccination, chest radiography, diagnose of disease, presence of concomitant disease, tuberculosis story, PPD value, chemoprophylaxis acquisition, which anti-tuberculosis agents received, duration of chemoprophylaxis, duration of TNF-α blocker, other immunosuppressive using were measured. RESULTS Rheumatologic diseases were often. Prophylaxis has given at 73.9% of patients. Patients with received anti-TNF-α therapy (n= 134) have not developed pulmonary or extra-pulmonary tuberculosis disease. CONCLUSION Patients with received anti-TNF-α therapy, are scanned with TST or Quantiferon. If latent tuberculosis infection are diagnosed, tuberculosis prophylaxis should be started pre-anti-TNF-α therapy at least one month and INH chemoprophylaxis should be completed on 9 months or RIF should be completed on 4 months. Serum liver enzymes and bilirubin measurements monthly; follow-up physical examination and chest radiography should be performed for 3 months.