Latent Ability

@article{Walton2009LatentA,
  title={Latent Ability},
  author={Gregory M. Walton and Steven John Spencer},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  year={2009},
  volume={20},
  pages={1132 - 1139}
}
Past research has assumed that group differences in academic performance entirely reflect genuine differences in ability. In contrast, extending research on stereotype threat, we suggest that standard measures of academic performance are biased against non-Asian ethnic minorities and against women in quantitative fields. This bias results not from the content of performance measures, but from the context in which they are assessed—from psychological threats in common academic environments… 

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