Late swing or early stance? A narrative review of hamstring injury mechanisms during high‐speed running

@article{KenneallyDabrowski2019LateSO,
  title={Late swing or early stance? A narrative review of hamstring injury mechanisms during high‐speed running},
  author={Claire J B Kenneally-Dabrowski and Nicholas A. T. Brown and Adrian K. M. Lai and Diana M. Perriman and Wayne A. Spratford and Benjamin G. Serpell},
  journal={Scandinavian Journal of Medicine \& Science in Sports},
  year={2019},
  volume={29},
  pages={1083 - 1091}
}
Hamstring injuries are highly prevalent in many running‐based sports, and predominantly affect the long head of biceps femoris. Re‐injury rates are also high and together lead to considerable time lost from sport. However, the mechanisms for hamstring injury during high‐speed running are still not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this review was to summarize the current literature describing hamstring musculotendon mechanics and electromyography activity during high‐speed running, and… 

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References

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  • Biology
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The first publications which considered the time of onset in the gait cycle for hamstring strains concluded that early stance was the highest risk period, but this is a widely held belief despite experimental muscle strains being able to be produced during concentric contractions.

Hamstring musculotendon dynamics during stance and swing phases of high-speed running.

The large inertial loads during high-speed running appear to make the hamstrings most susceptible to injury during swing phase, relevant for scientifically establishing muscle injury prevention and rehabilitation programs.

Hamstrings are most susceptible to injury during the late swing phase of sprinting

Biomechanical data obtained from healthy athletes; case studies of injuries during biomechanical experiments; and clinical outcomes from intervention studies support the premise that late swing phase is the likely time when the biarticular hamstrings are most vulnerable to injury.

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It is proposed that isometric rather than eccentric exercises are a more specific way of conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running because of the increasing distance between the attachment points.

Acute First-Time Hamstring Strains during High-Speed Running

Careful palpation during the first 3 weeks after injury and magnetic resonance imaging investigation performed during the following 6 weeks provide valuable information that can be used to predict the time to return to pre-injury level of performance in elite sprinting.
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