Late swing or early stance? A narrative review of hamstring injury mechanisms during high‐speed running

  title={Late swing or early stance? A narrative review of hamstring injury mechanisms during high‐speed running},
  author={Claire J B Kenneally-Dabrowski and Nicholas A. T. Brown and Adrian K. M. Lai and Diana M. Perriman and Wayne A. Spratford and Benjamin G. Serpell},
  journal={Scandinavian Journal of Medicine \& Science in Sports},
  pages={1083 - 1091}
Hamstring injuries are highly prevalent in many running‐based sports, and predominantly affect the long head of biceps femoris. Re‐injury rates are also high and together lead to considerable time lost from sport. However, the mechanisms for hamstring injury during high‐speed running are still not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this review was to summarize the current literature describing hamstring musculotendon mechanics and electromyography activity during high‐speed running, and… 

Mechanisms of Hamstring Strain Injury: Interactions between Fatigue, Muscle Activation and Function

The present critical review will evaluate the current evidence on hamstring injury mechanism(s) during high-intensity running and discuss the interactions between fatigue and hamstring muscle activation and function.

Sprinting Biomechanics and Hamstring Injuries: Is There a Link? A Literature Review

Overall, current evidence was unable to provide a clear and nonconflicting perspective on the potential link between sprinting biomechanics and HSIs, but some interesting findings were revealed, which hopefully will stimulate future research on this topic.

Potential prognostic factors for hamstring muscle injury in elite male soccer players: A prospective study

Regression analysis revealed that age, Nordic hamstring strength test, previous injury history, and isokinetic concentric torque at 240°/sec could determine hamstring injuries by 25.9%, with no other significant predicting risk factors.

The mechanism of hamstring injuries – a systematic review

A stretch-type injury to the hamstrings is caused by extensive hip flexion with an extended knee, and hamstring injuries during sprinting are most likely to occur due to excessive muscle strain caused by eccentric contraction during the late swing phase of the running gait cycle.

Preseason Eccentric Strength Is Not Associated with Hamstring Strain Injury: A Prospective Study in Collegiate Athletes

ABSTRACT Introduction Established risk factors for hamstring strain injuries (HSI) include older age and prior HSI. However, these are nonmodifiable and have a limited role in injury prevention.

The Hamstring and ACL Injury Incidence during a Season Is Not Directly Related to Preseason Knee Strength Ratios in Elite Male Soccer Players

The results of this study show that low-angular velocity preseason testing did not result in a player’s HSI or ACL injury during the season and acted as an insufficient factor of injury risk in adult professional soccer players.

Muscle Fibre Typology as a Novel Risk Factor for Hamstring Strain Injuries in Professional Football (Soccer): A Prospective Cohort Study

This study identified muscle fibre typology as a novel and potent risk factor for HSI in team sports in professional football players competing in the Belgian Jupiler Pro League and the English Premier League cohort.

Prevention of Hamstring Injuries in Male Soccer Athletes

The most prevalently studied method is the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE).



Hamstrings are most susceptible to injury during the early stance phase of sprinting

  • J. Orchard
  • Biology
    British Journal of Sports Medicine
  • 2011
The first publications which considered the time of onset in the gait cycle for hamstring strains concluded that early stance was the highest risk period, but this is a widely held belief despite experimental muscle strains being able to be produced during concentric contractions.

Hamstring musculotendon dynamics during stance and swing phases of high-speed running.

The large inertial loads during high-speed running appear to make the hamstrings most susceptible to injury during swing phase, relevant for scientifically establishing muscle injury prevention and rehabilitation programs.

Is there really an eccentric action of the hamstrings during the swing phase of high-speed running? part I: A critical review of the literature

It is proposed that isometric rather than eccentric exercises are a more specific way of conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running because of the increasing distance between the attachment points.

Region‐dependent hamstrings activity in Nordic hamstring exercise and stiff‐leg deadlift defined with high‐density electromyography

The use of HD‐EMG in hamstrings revealed heterogeneous hamstrings activity during typical injury prevention exercises and might be useful in future studies to provide a comprehensive overview of hamstring muscle activity in other exercises and high‐injury risk tasks.

Mechanics of the human hamstring muscles during sprinting.

It is suggested that this period in the stride cycle may be when the biarticular hamstrings are at greatest injury risk, and hamstring injury prevention or rehabilitation programs should preferentially target strengthening exercises that involve eccentric contractions performed with high loads at longer musculotendon lengths.