Late survival of Neanderthals at the southernmost extreme of Europe

  title={Late survival of Neanderthals at the southernmost extreme of Europe},
  author={C. Finlayson and Francisco Giles Pacheco and Joaqu{\'i}n Rodr{\'i}guez-Vidal and Darren A. Fa and Jos{\'e} Mar{\'i}a Guti{\'e}rrez L{\'o}pez and Antonio P{\'e}rez and Geraldine Finlayson and Ethel Allu{\'e} and Javier Baena Preysler and Isabel C{\'a}ceres and Jos{\'e} S. Carri{\'o}n and Yolanda Fern{\'a}ndez Jalvo and Chris P. Gleed-Owen and Francisco Jos{\'e} Jim{\'e}nez Espejo and Pilar L{\'o}pez and Jos{\'e} A. S{\'a}ez and Jos{\'e} Ant{\'o}nio Riquelme Cantal and Antonio S{\'a}nchez Marco and Francisco Giles Guzm{\'a}n and Kimberly M. Brown and Noem{\'i} Fuentes and Claire A. Valarino and Antonio Villalpando and Christopher B. Stringer and F. Francisca Martinez Ruiz and Tatsuhiko Sakamoto},
The late survival of archaic hominin populations and their long contemporaneity with modern humans is now clear for southeast Asia. In Europe the extinction of the Neanderthals, firmly associated with Mousterian technology, has received much attention, and evidence of their survival after 35 kyr bp has recently been put in doubt. Here we present data, based on a high-resolution record of human occupation from Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar, that establish the survival of a population of Neanderthals… 
Neanderthal last stand? Thoughts on Iberian refugia in late MIS 3
  • L. Straus
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Quaternary Science
  • 2020
The history of the idea of Neanderthal/Mousterian refugia on the Iberian Peninsula over the past three decades is reviewed. Despite the recent re‐datings of several key sites that have cast doubt on
Rapid ecological turnover and its impact on Neanderthal and other human populations.
Title : New chronology for the Middle Palaeolithic of the Southern Caucasus confirms early demise of Neanderthals in this region
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An early Aurignacian arrival in southwestern Europe
New 43–45 ka dates for stone tool assemblages associated with anatomically modern humans (AMHs) at the southern Spanish site of Bajondillo suggest an early AMH incursion and weaken the case for late Neanderthal persistence in the region.
  • K. Harvati
  • Geography
    Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology
  • 2021
Neanderthals are a group of fossil humans that inhabited Western Eurasia from approximately 300 to 30,000 years ago (ka). They vanished from the fossil record a few millennia after the first modern
Did Neandertals and anatomically modern humans coexist in northern Italy during the late MIS 3
Tenfold Population Increase in Western Europe at the Neandertal–to–Modern Human Transition
Archaeological evidence from the best-documented region of Europe shows that during this replacement human populations increased by one order of magnitude, suggesting that numerical supremacy alone may have been a critical factor in facilitating this replacement.
Climatic conditions for the last Neanderthals: Herpetofaunal record of Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar.


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It is concluded that the overall subsistence strategies of the Neanderthals were directed towards highly efficient resource exploitation irrespective of the environmental context.
Biogeography and evolution of the genus Homo.
A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia
The discovery of an adult hominin with stature and endocranial volume equal to the smallest-known australopithecines is reported, from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia, and shows that the genus Homo is morphologically more varied and flexible in its adaptive responses than previously thought.
Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals.
These results and the recent redating of a number of purportedly old modern human skeletal remains in Europe to younger time periods highlight the importance of fine chronological control when studying this biocultural time period and the tenuous nature of monolithic scenarios for the establishment of modern humans and earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.
A new radiocarbon revolution and the dispersal of modern humans in Eurasia
Two recent developments in the methodology of radiocarbon dating show that the speed of colonization of Europe by modern human populations was more rapid than previously believed, and that their period of coexistence with the preceding Neanderthal was shorter.
ESR dating at Mezmaiskaya Cave, Russia.
  • A. Skinner, B. Blackwell, V. Doronichev
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
  • 2005
Excavations at Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar.
Gorham's Cave is one of a group of seven which lie at the base of the cliffs on the east side of Gibraltar, below Europa Advance Road, which is about two hundred feet above them. There is now a beach
AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Ancient Bone Using Ultrafiltration
The Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU) has used an ultrafiltration protocol to further purify gelatin from archaeological bone since 2000. In this paper, the methodology is described, and it