Although the association of cholangiocarcinoma with intrahepatic calculi (hepatolithiasis) is well recognized, the late development of cholangiocarcinoma after the treatment of hepatolithiasis has not been reported in detail. Of 109 consecutive patients with hepatolithiasis treated during 19 years, eight patients had cholangiocarcinoma, seven of whom had cholangiocarcinoma two to 14 years, with a mean of eight years, after the treatment of hepatolithiasis. Absence of cholangiocarcinoma was confirmed when stones were removed at the time of the initial treatment. The mean age was 56 years, with a female to male ratio of 2:5. At the time of detecting cholangiocarcinoma, three patients had no gallstones and four had gallstones at the corresponding site to the carcinoma. Cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct was often observed on the direct cholangiogram. The biles were all infected mainly with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species. Thus, bile stasis and bacteria infection seems to be the important causative factor, causing cholangiocarcinoma rather than the calculi itself. Because the symptoms only mimic those of cholangitis, the possible presence of cholangiocarcinoma should be considered even after the treatment of hepatolithiasis for early detection and curative resection.