Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules

  title={Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules},
  author={Simone Borri and Gabriele Santambrogio},
  journal={Advances in Physics: X},
  pages={368 - 386}
This paper reviews the recent results in high-resolution spectroscopy on cold molecules. Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules addresses issues of symmetry violation, like in the search for the electric dipole moment of the electron and the studies on energy differences in enantiomers of chiral species; tries to improve the precision to which fundamental physical constants are known and tests for their possible variation in time and space; tests quantum electrodynamics, and searches for a fifth… 

Long-term trapping of Stark-decelerated molecules

Trapped cold molecules represent attractive systems for precision-spectroscopic studies and for investigations of cold collisions and chemical reactions. However, achieving their confinement for

Metrological-grade tunable coherent source in the mid-infrared for molecular precision spectroscopy

  • S. BorriG. Insero G. Santambrogio
  • Physics
    2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC)
  • 2017
Molecular precision spectroscopy opens new perspectives on tests of fundamental laws of physics and of fundamental constants variation [1]. The mid infrared (IR) is a key region for molecular

SI-traceable molecular transition frequency measurements at the 10−12 relative uncertainty level

Accurate and spectroscopic measurements of molecular transition frequencies are increasingly being employed in a variety of rigorous tests of physics, including the validity of quantum

Measuring molecular frequencies in the 1–10 μm range at 11-digits accuracy

A setup for high-resolution spectroscopy whose approach can be applied in the whole 1–10 μm range is presented, which combines the power of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and the accuracy achievable by difference frequency generation using an orientation patterned GaP crystal.

QCL-based frequency metrology from the mid-infrared to the THz range: a review

Abstract Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are becoming a key tool for plenty of applications, from the mid-infrared (mid-IR) to the THz range. Progress in related areas, such as the development of

Mid-infrared tunable, narrow-linewidth difference-frequency laser based on orientation-patterned gallium phosphide

We report on the first characterization of orientation-patterned gallium phosphide (OP-GaP) crystals used to generate narrow-linewidth, coherent mid-infrared (MIR) radiation at 5.85 μm by difference

The Italian optical link for time and frequency

The Italian Institute of Metrology (INRIM) developed an optical fibre backbone for the dissemination of accurate time and frequency standards to several research institutions of the Country. A

Time and Frequency Distribution over fibre for Geodesy, Seismology and Industry

The Italian Institute of Metrology (INRIM) realized a fibre-optic backbone for the dissemination of accurate time and frequency standards and implemented a dedicated service for time distribution with traceability to UTC for industrial users.

A QCL-based metrological-grade source at 6 μm

In view of high-precision molecular spectroscopy in the infrared, we realized a narrow-linewidth laser source at 5.8 $$\upmu$$ μ m traceable to the second in the International System of Units by

Terahertz Frequency Metrology for Spectroscopic Applications: a Review

We provide an overview on terahertz (THz) frequency metrology, starting from the nowadays available continuous wave THz sources, discussing their main features such as tunability, spectral purity,



Cold and ultracold molecules: science, technology and applications

This paper presents a review of the current state of the art in the research field of cold and ultracold molecules. It serves as an introduction to the focus issue of New Journal of Physics on Cold

Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule

This work experimentally demonstrates laser cooling of the polar molecule strontium monofluoride (SrF) using an optical cycling scheme requiring only three lasers, and bridges the gap between ultracold (submillikelvin) temperatures and the ∼1-K temperatures attainable with directly cooled molecules.

Precision Spectroscopy of Polarized Molecules in an Ion Trap

A method to measure the electric dipole moment of the electron is demonstrated by using polarized trapped molecular ions and frequency shifts arising from well-controlled topological phases are used to determine magnetic g factors.

A dipolar gas of ultracold molecules.

Key experimental requirements for observing strong dipole-dipole interactions in an ultracold dipolar gas of molecules are discussed and current experimental progress in the field is surveyed.

Testing the time-invariance of fundamental constants using microwave spectroscopy on cold diatomic radicals.

The possibility of testing the time-invariance of fundamental constants using near degeneracies between rotational levels in the fine structure ladders of molecular radicals in the natural isotopomers of carbon monoxide in its a 3pi state is discussed.

Magneto-optical trapping of a diatomic molecule

Three-dimensional magneto-optical trapping of a diatomic molecule, strontium monofluoride (SrF), at a temperature of approximately 2.5 millikelvin is demonstrated, the lowest yet achieved by direct cooling of a molecule.

Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules

The slowing of an adiabatically cooled beam of deuterated ammonia molecules by time-varying inhomogeneous electric fields and subsequent loading into an electrostatic trap is described, illustrating that polar molecules can be efficiently cooled and trapped, thus providing an opportunity to study collisions and collective quantum effects in a wide range of ultra-cold molecular systems.

Cold molecule spectroscopy for constraining the evolution of the fine structure constant.

Comparing these laboratory frequencies to those from OH megamasers in interstellar space will allow a sensitivity of 1 ppm for Delta(alpha/alpha) over approximately 10(10) yr.

Manipulation of molecules with electromagnetic fields

The goal of the present article is to review the major developments that have led to the current understanding of molecule–field interactions and experimental methods for manipulating molecules with

Magneto-optical trap for polar molecules.

This method uses pulsed electric fields to nonadiabatically remix the ground-state magnetic sublevels of the molecule, allowing one to build a magneto-optical trap based on a quasicycling J' = J'' -1 transition.