Laser annealing heals radiation damage in avalanche photodiodes

@article{Lim2017LaserAH,
  title={Laser annealing heals radiation damage in avalanche photodiodes},
  author={Jin Gyu Lim and Elena Anisimova and Brendon Higgins and Jean-Philippe Bourgoin and Thomas Jennewein and Vadim Makarov},
  journal={Epj Quantum Technology},
  year={2017},
  volume={4}
}
Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are a practical option for space-based quantum communications requiring single-photon detection. However, radiation damage to APDs significantly increases their dark count rates and thus reduces their useful lifetimes in orbit. We show that high-power laser annealing of irradiated APDs of three different models (Excelitas C30902SH, Excelitas SLiK, and Laser Components SAP500S2) heals the radiation damage and several APDs are restored to typical pre-radiation dark… 

Repeated radiation damage and thermal annealing of avalanche photodiodes

Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are well-suited for single-photon detection on quantum communication satellites as they are a mature technology with high detection efficiency without requiring cryogenic

Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications

Proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications demonstrate significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications.

Spaceborne, low-noise, single-photon detection for satellite-based quantum communications.

The authors' spaceborne, low-noise SPDs established a feasible satellite-based up-link quantum communication that was validated on the quantum experiment science satellite platform and open new windows of opportunities for space research and applications in deep-space optical communications, single-photon laser ranging, as well as for testing the fundamental principles of physics in space.

A low-noise single-photon detector for long-distance free-space quantum communication

We build and test a single-photon detector based on a Si avalanche photodiode Excelitas 30902SH thermoelectrically cooled to −100 ∘ C. Our detector has dark count rate below 1 Hz, 500 μ m $500\

Nanobob: a CubeSat mission concept for quantum communication experiments in an uplink configuration

We present a ground-to-space quantum key distribution (QKD) mission concept and the accompanying feasibility study for the development of the associated low earth orbit nanosatellite payload. The

Quantum communications uplink to a 3U CubeSat

It is shown that the CubeSat is feasible and can be used to violate a Bell-like inequality over a free-space distance of 500 km and solutions to key problems such as satellite pointing errors and measurement/detection issues are discussed.

Single-photon detectors for satellite based quantum communications

With the growing use of online communications in our modern society, information security is becoming a big concern. Along with that, the progress in quantum computers is posing severe threats to

Q3Sat: quantum communications uplink to a 3U CubeSat—feasibility & design

It is demonstrated how to leverage the latest advancements in nano-satellite body-pointing to show that the 4 kg CubeSat can generate a quantum-secure key, which has so far only been shown by a much larger 600 kg satellite mission.

Airborne demonstration of a quantum key distribution receiver payload

  • C. J. PughSarah Kaiser T. Jennewein
  • Physics
    2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC)
  • 2017
This work presents the first successful demonstration of QKD to a receiver on a moving aircraft.

Progress in satellite quantum key distribution

This manuscript summarizes research and development which is beginning to enable QKD with satellites, and includes a discussion of protocols, infrastructure, and the technical challenges involved with implementing such systems, as well as a top level summary of on-going satelliteQKD initiatives around the world.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 54 REFERENCES

Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications

Proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications demonstrate significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications.

Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection.

Avalanche photodiodes, which operate above the breakdown voltage in Geiger mode connected with avalanche-quenching circuits, can be used to detect single photons and are therefore called singlephoton

Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits

Abstract The evolution of solid-state avalanche detectors of single optical photons is outlined and the issues for further progress are discussed. Physical phenomena that underlay the operation of

Space-qualified silicon avalanche-photodiode single-photon-counting modules

Abstract A space-qualified silicon avalanche-photodiode (APD) based single-photon-counting-module (SPCM) was developed for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board NASA's Ice, Cloud, and

Silicon avalanche photodiode operation and lifetime analysis for small satellites.

It is proposed that a Si APD in a 400 km equatorial orbit may operate beyond the lifetime of the satellite.

Measurement of proton radiation damage to Si avalanche photodiodes

The effects of proton radiation damage on EG&G C30902S Si avalanche photodiodes (APD's) were measured. The APD bulk leakage current increased at 0.29 fA/rad, or about 1800 dark photoelectrons per

Controlling an actively-quenched single photon detector with bright light.

The generality of the attack and its possible applicability to eavsdropping the full secret key of all QKD systems using avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are demonstrated, and two new technical loopholes found just in one detector model suggest that this problem must be solved in general, by incorporating generally imperfect detectors into the security proof forQKD.

Mechanisms Contributing to the Noise Pulse Rate of Avalanche Diodes

The noise pulse rate of microplasmas and uniform avalanche diodes is determined by carrier generation within the space‐charge layer of the breakdown region, and by minority carrier diffusion to the

Proton radiation damage of Si APD single photon counters

  • Xiaoli SunH. Dautet
  • Physics
    2001 IEEE Radiation Effects Data Workshop. NSREC 2001. Workshop Record. Held in conjunction with IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference (Cat. No.01TH8588)
  • 2001
Proton radiation damage of Si avalanche photodiodes were measured at 53 to 189MeV proton energy. The annealing rates were monitored at -10/spl deg/C, room temperature, and 55/spl deg/C. The results

Laser damage helps the eavesdropper in quantum cryptography.

A proof-of-principle experiment performed on an avalanche photodiode-based detector shows that laser damage can be used to create loopholes, which can turn a perfect QKD system into a completely insecure system.
...