The speculation whether juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis may transform into or be associated with epidermoid carcinoma is explored. We document a case of invasive laryngeal carcinoma arising in preexisting juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis. After multiple childhood laryngoscopies and a tracheotomy, a 54-year-old, 30-pack per year smoker, who had never received radiation therapy, developed a florid exophytic transglottic squamous cell carcinoma. Histologically, the invasive epidermoid carcinoma was surrounded by a field of papillomata with varying degrees of atypical changes. After total laryngectomy, isolated papillomata were found in the lower trachea. There were no cervical lymph node metastases. No postoperative radiation therapy was given. Persistent squamous papillomata in the tracheostomy site, the lower trachea, and the posterior pharynx were treated with the CO2 laser. We emphasize the need to maintain a high index of suspicion for malignancy. In addition, we review the problem of benign papillomata in the aerodigestive tract following laryngectomy.