Lars Onsager, 27 November - 5 October 1976

  title={Lars Onsager, 27 November - 5 October 1976},
  author={Hugh Christopher Longuet-Higgins and Michael E. Fisher},
  journal={Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society},
  pages={443 - 471}
One day in 1925 Pieter Debye was sitting in his office at the E.T.H. in Zürich when a visitor from Norway was announced. In came a tall young man, who walked silently across the room, bent over the desk and said solemnly: ‘Professor Debye, your theory of electrolytes is incorrect.’ Whereupon Debye, after begging the stranger to sit down, and inviting him to discuss his objections, offered him an assistantship for the following year. The young man’s name was Lars Onsager (Murphy & Cohen 1968… Expand
History of the Lenz–Ising Model 1950–1965: from irrelevance to relevance
This is the second in a series of three papers that charts the history of the Lenz–Ising model (commonly called just the Ising model in the physics literature) in considerable detail, from itsExpand
History of the Lenz-Ising Model 1920–1950: From Ferromagnetic to Cooperative Phenomena
Abstract.I chart the considerable changes in the status and conception of the Lenz-Ising model from 1920 to 1950 in terms of three phases: In the early 1920s, Lenz and Ising introduced the model inExpand
Onsager and Kaufman’s Calculation of the Spontaneous Magnetization of the Ising Model
Lars Onsager announced in 1949 that he and Bruria Kaufman had proved a simple formula for the spontaneous magnetization of the square-lattice Ising model, but did not publish their derivation. It wasExpand
Phenomena, Models and Understanding The Lenz-Ising Model and Critical Phenomena
I chart the considerable changes in the status and conception of the Lenz-Ising model from 1920 to 1950 in terms of three phases: In the early 1920s, Lenz and Ising introduced the model in the fieldExpand
Onsager and Kaufman’s Calculation of the Spontaneous Magnetization of the Ising Model: II
In 2011 I reviewed the calculation by Onsager and Kaufman of the spontaneous magnetization of the square-lattice Ising model, which Onsager announced in 1949 but never published. I have recently beenExpand
Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925–1975
I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physicalExpand
Charged macromolecules in external fields. I. The sphere
The response of rigid macroions in aqueous solution to an external electric field is considered. The external field, which may be steady or oscillating, induces perturbations in the distribution ofExpand
Fredholm Determinant evaluations of the Ising Model diagonal correlations and their \lambda - generalisation
The diagonal spin-spin correlations of the square lattice Ising model, originally expressed as Toeplitz determinants, are given by two distinct Fredholm determinants - one with an integral operatorExpand
Die Repräsentanten der Deutschen Bunsen-Gesellschaft Kurzbiographien und Bilder
Das Ansehen der Bunsen-Gesellschaft in der Offentlichkeit wird wesentlich durch ihre Reprasentanten im Vorstand und die von ihr in verschiedener Weise Geehrten bestimmt.


Initial Recombination of Ions
The probability that a pair of ions of given initial separation will recombine with each other is computed from the laws of Brownian motion, which is the proper procedure whenever the Langevin factorExpand
Crystal Statistics. III. Short-Range Order in a Binary Ising Lattice
The degree of order in a binary lattice is described in terms of a family of "correlation" functions. The correlation function for two given lattice sites states what is the probability that theExpand
Introdzution. The shapes of colloidal particles are often reasonably compact, so that no diameter greatly exceeds the cube root of the volume of the particle. On the other hand, we know many coiloidsExpand
Crystal statistics. I. A two-dimensional model with an order-disorder transition
The partition function of a two-dimensional "ferromagnetic" with scalar "spins" (Ising model) is computed rigorously for the case of vanishing field. The eigenwert problem involved in theExpand
Deviations from Ohm's Law in Weak Electrolytes
The effect of an external electric field on the electrolytic dissociation is computed kinetically from the equations for Brownian motion in the combined Coulomb and external fields. The result is anExpand
Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes. II.
A general reciprocal relation, applicable to transport processes such as the conduction of heat and electricity, and diffusion, is derived from the assumption of microscopic reversibility. In theExpand
Neutron Scattering Investigation of Phase Transitions and Magnetic Correlations in the Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnets K 2 Ni F 4 , Rb 2 Mn F 4 , Rb 2 Fe F 4
The quasi-elastic magnetic scattering from the planar antiferromagnets ${\mathrm{K}}_{2}$Ni${\mathrm{F}}_{4}$, ${\mathrm{Rb}}_{2}$Mn${\mathrm{F}}_{4}$, ${\mathrm{Rb}}_{2}$Fe${\mathrm{F}}_{4}$ hasExpand
Bose-Einstein Condensation and Liquid Helium
The mathematical description of B.E. (Bose-Einstein) condensation is generalized so as to be applicable to a system of interacting particles. B.E. condensation is said to be present whenever theExpand
Concept of Off-Diagonal Long-Range Order and the Quantum Phases of Liquid He and of Superconductors
This review is concerned with the concept that in a many-body system of bosons or fermions, it is possible to have an off-diagonai long-range order of the reduced density matrices in the coordinateExpand
Life in the Early Days
The origin and early evolution of life is a matter of more than purely geneological interest; as we grapple with this problem, we expect to gain deeper insight into general aspects of cellularExpand