# Large nonlinear Kerr effect in graphene

@article{Zhang2012LargeNK, title={Large nonlinear Kerr effect in graphene}, author={Han Zhang and St{\'e}phane Virally and Qiaoliang Bao and Kian Ping Loh and Serge Massar and Nicolas Godbout and Pascal Kockaert}, journal={arXiv: Optics}, year={2012} }

Under strong laser illumination, few-layer graphene exhibits both a transmittance increase due to saturable absorption and a nonlinear phase shift. Here, we unambiguously distinguish these two nonlinear optical effects and identify both real and imaginary parts of the complex nonlinear refractive index of graphene. We show that graphene possesses a giant nonlinear refractive index n2=10-7cm2W-1, almost nine orders of magnitude larger than bulk dielectrics. We find that the nonlinear refractive…

## 376 Citations

### Broadband ultrafast nonlinear optical response of few-layers graphene: toward the mid-infrared regime

- Physics
- 2015

Gapless linear energy dispersion of graphene endows it with unique nonlinear optical properties, including broadband nonlinear absorption and giant nonlinear refractive index. Herein, we…

### All-optical controlling based on nonlinear graphene plasmonic waveguides.

- PhysicsOptics express
- 2016

The results show that the all-optical graphene plasmonic switch can realize a broad bandwidth over 5 THz, a potentially very high switching speed and an extinction ratio of 18.14 dB with the electric amplitude of the pump light at the signal frequency of 28 THz.

### Direct observation of an irradiance dependent nonlinear refraction in CVD single layer graphene

- Physics
- 2021

### Electronic Scattering of Graphene Plasmons in the Terahertz Nonlinear Regime

- PhysicsIEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
- 2017

Graphene possesses large Kerr nonlinearities that enabled the realization of energy-efficient nonlinear optical devices. At the same time, electronic scattering of graphene plasmons shows very high…

### Waveguide engineering of graphene's nonlinearity

- Physics
- 2014

Graphene has recently been shown to possess giant nonlinearity; however, the utility of this nonlinearity is limited due to high losses and small interaction volume. We show that by performing…

### Third order optical nonlinearity of graphene

- Physics
- 2014

We perform a perturbative calculation of the third order optical conductivities of doped graphene, using approximations valid around the Dirac points and neglecting effects due to scattering and…

### Graphene Saturable Absorption and Applications in Fiber Laser

- Physics
- 2017

Graphene as an ideal ultra-thin two-dimensional (2D) form of carbon has not only unique electronic but also wonderful broadband nonlinear optics. Particularly, under strong laser radiation, graphene…

### Evaluation of graphene optical nonlinearity with photon-pair generation in graphene-on-silicon waveguides.

- PhysicsOptics express
- 2019

The results indicate that the purely χ (3)-based effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene is on the order of 10-13 m 2/W, and provide important insights for applications of graphene-based nonlinear optics in on-chip nanophotonics.

### Attenuation, dispersion and nonlinearity effects in graphene-based waveguides

- PhysicsBeilstein journal of nanotechnology
- 2015

It is concluded that it is possible to control the shape of the output pulses with the value of the input signal power and the chemical potential of the graphene nanoribbon.

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 20 REFERENCES

### Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene.

- PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 2010

We investigate the nonlinear optical properties of graphene flakes using four-wave mixing. The corresponding third-order optical susceptibility is found to be remarkably large and only weakly…

### Spectroscopy of the nonlinear refractive index of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals

- Physics
- 2006

A spectroscopic study of the optical nonlinearity of PbSe colloidal solutions was performed with the Z-scan technique at wavelength intervals of 1200–1350 and 1540–1750nm. While nonlinear absorption…

### Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers

- Physics
- 2011

Graphene exhibits wavelength-independent, saturable optical absorption with fast response time, and large modulation depth. Thus, it is an attractive material for the saturable absorption of fiber…

### Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser.

- PhysicsACS nano
- 2010

The optoelectronic properties of graphene are exploited to realize an ultrafast laser and pave the way to graphene-based photonics.

### The Physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene.

- Physics, ChemistryOptics express
- 2010

The results strongly suggest that graphene is an excellent atomic layer saturable absorber, far beyond the time resolution of other ultrafast techniques with hundred fs laser pulses.

### Atomic‐Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers

- Physics
- 2009

The optical conductance of monolayer graphene is defined solely by the fine structure constant, α = $e^2 /\hbar c$ (where e is the electron charge, $\hbar $ is Dirac's constant and c is the speed of…

### Relation between nonlinear refractive index and third-order susceptibility in absorbing media

- Physics
- 2004

Expressions relating complex third-order optical susceptibility (χ(3)=χR(3)+iχI(3)) with nonlinear refractive index (n2) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) have been formulated that eliminate…

### Electronic properties of graphene

- ChemistryReviews of Modern Physics
- 2009

Graphene is the first example of truly two‐dimensional crystals – it's just one layer of carbon atoms. It turns out that graphene is a gapless semiconductor with unique electronic properties…

### Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene

- PhysicsScience
- 2008

It is shown that the opacity of suspended graphene is defined solely by the fine structure constant, a = e2/hc � 1/137 (where c is the speed of light), the parameter that describes coupling between light and relativistic electrons and that is traditionally associated with quantum electrodynamics rather than materials science.

### Non-linear electromagnetic response of graphene

- Physics
- 2007

It is shown that the massless energy spectrum of electrons and holes in graphene leads to the strongly non-linear electromagnetic response of this system. We predict that the graphene layer,…