Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction

  title={Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction},
  author={J. C. Farman and Brian George Gardiner and Jonathan D. Shanklin},
Recent attempts1,2 to consolidate assessments of the effect of human activities on stratospheric ozone (O3) using one-dimensional models for 30° N have suggested that perturbations of total O3 will remain small for at least the next decade. Results from such models are often accepted by default as global estimates3. The inadequacy of this approach is here made evident by observations that the spring values of total O3 in Antarctica have now fallen considerably. The circulation in the lower… 
Reductions of Antarctic ozone due to synergistic interactions of chlorine and bromine
The vertical column density of ozone observed in October over Antarctica has fallen precipitously over the past 10 yr. The concentration at Halley Bay (76° S 27° W), expressed conventionally in
Changing Composition of the Global Stratosphere
It is argued that the Antarctic phenomenon is likely to persist: prompt drastic reduction in the emission of industrial halocarbons is required if the damage to stratospheric O3 is to be reversed.
Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Potential Effects on the Global Ozone Budget
In addition to the dramatic reductions in polar ozone observed in the springtime Antarctic stratosphere during the past decade, data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument also
Are Antarctic ozone variations a manifestation of dynamics or chemistry?
Observations1–3 reveal a large seasonal decrease in the column density of ozone during Antarctic early spring, followed by a rapid increase after October beyond its pre-spring value. Given the unique
Spatial variation of ozone depletion rates in the springtime Antarctic polar vortex.
An area-mapping technique, designed to filter out synoptic perturbations of the Antarctic polar vortex such as distortion or displacement away from the pole, was applied to the Nimbus-7 TOMS data, revealing the detailed morphology of the temporal evolution of column O3.
On the depletion of Antarctic ozone
Recent observations by Farman et al.1 reveal remarkable depletions in the total atmospheric ozone content in Antarctica. The observed total ozone decreased smoothly during the period from about 1975
Effects of injected ice particles in the lower stratosphere on the Antarctic ozone hole
The Antarctic ozone hole will continue to be observed in the next 35–50 years, although the emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have gradually been phased out during the last two decades. In this
The antarctic ozone minimum: Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11‐year solar cycle
Photochemical calculations along “diabatic trajectories” in the meridional plane are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. Results indicate that
Chlorine chemistry in the Antarctic stratosphere: Impact of OClO and Cl2 O2 and implications for observations
Theories have been proposed to relate the reduction of O3 during antarctic spring to catalytic cycles involving chlorine and bromine species. A necessary condition for any chlorine-catalyzed scheme


Nonlinear Response of Stratospheric Ozone Column to Chlorine Injections
With a reasonably complete and up-to-date photochemical model of the stratosphere, we find that the calculated stratospheric ozone-column response to chlorine injections is highly nonlinear. The
Ozone Measurements at British Antarctic Survey Stations
Ozone measurements have been made regularly at Argentine Islands and Halley Bay since 1957. A recent critical review of the data revealed inconsistencies in the extraterrestrial constants adopted for
Interpretations of stratospheric photochemistry
Trace stratospheric species (parts per billion or less) have negligible effects on ozone (parts per million) unless they interact in catalytic cycles that regenerate the trace species. It is
Reductions in ozone at high concentrations of stratospheric halogens
An increase in the concentration of inorganic chlorine to levels comparable to that of oxidized reactive nitrogen could cause a significant change in the chemistry of the lower stratosphere leading
Springtime stratospheric NO2 in Antarctica
We present springtime measurements of column amounts of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide measured by ground based absorption spectroscopy from Scott Base, Antarctica (77.8°S, 166.7°E). There is a rapid
Radiative Heating of the Global Atmosphere
Abstract Monthly zonal mean global radiative heating rates have been obtained from the surface to 10 mb for all twelve months. Seasonal profiles of the contribution by each constituent are presented
On the Mean Meridional Mass Motions of the Stratosphere and Mesosphere
Abstract Using a simplified, approximate “Lagrangian-mean” dynamical formulation, the mean meridional mass circulation of the stratosphere and mesosphere is discussed. Under solstice conditions, it