Large eyeballs in diving ichthyosaurs

  title={Large eyeballs in diving ichthyosaurs},
  author={Ryosuke Motani and Bruce M. Rothschild and William R. Wahl},
The huge eyes of these extinct reptiles may have been useful deep in the ocean. 

Palaeobiology: Born and Gone in Global Warming

  • R. Motani
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Current Biology
  • 2016

Into the Light: The Origin of Anthropoidea

▪ Abstract Anthropoidea is a clade of primates including Platyrrhini and Catarrhini. Definitive fossil anthropoids include the early Oligocene Propliopithecidae and the late Eocene–early Oligocene ...

Sensory Ecology: Giant Eyes for Giant Predators?

Ichthyosaurian palaeopathology: evidence of injury and disease in fossil ‘fish lizards’

The documented record of ichthyosaurian paleopathologies reveals an array of injury-related bone modifications and instances of disease evidenced through multiple clades, skeletal regions and body-

On a new ichthyosaur of the genus Undorosaurus

With the application of cladistic method the phylogenetic position of two genera Undorosaurus and Paraophthalmosaurus in the system of Ichthyosauridae is defined and both taxa are referred to the clade Ophthalmosaurinae.

Evolution of Fish-Shaped Reptiles (reptilia: Ichthyopterygia) in Their Physical Environments and Constraints

Ichthyosaurs were a group of Mesozoic marine reptiles that evolved fish-shaped body outlines that allowed estimation of such characteristics as optimal cruising speed, visual sensitivity, and even possible basal metabolic rate ranges.

Darwin's fishes : an encyclopedia of ichthyology, ecology, and evolution

List of figures Foreword J. S. Nelson Preface and acknowledgements Conventions used in the text Darwin and ichthyology Darwin's fishes: a dry run Entries (A to ZZZ) Appendix I. Fish in spirits of

A new Lower Cretaceous ichthyosaur from Russia reveals skull shape conservatism within Ophthalmosaurinae

The skull of a new basal ophthalmosaurine ichthyosaur, Leninia stellans gen. et sp.

Osteological correlates and phylogenetic analysis of deep diving in living and extinct pinnipeds: What good are big eyes?

Testing morphological and diving data from a comprehensive data set, including living and extinct pinnipeds and other select carnivorans as outgroup taxa, demonstrates deep diving has evolved multiple times in crown Pinnipedia.

Basal reptilians, marine diapsids, and turtles: the flowering of reptile diversity

The otic anatomy of early reptilians, including some aquatic groups and turtles, is revised, finding differences in the configuration and morphology among Triassic and modern taxa.



Eel-like swimming in the earliest ichthyosaurs

The most complete specimen of the oldest known ichthyosaur, Chensaurus, is reported, representing a transition between the two body plans, and seems to be an evolutionary intermediate between the shorter-bodied terrestrial stock from which the group evolved, and advanced thunniform ICHthyosaurs.

Vision in Turtles

Only in primates, perhaps in squirrels too with their cone-rich retinas, does vision predominate to the same extent as in reptiles and birds.

Giant ichthyosaurs of the Early Jurassic

Temnodontosaurus platyodon, from the English lower Liassic (Hettangian and Sinemurian), is a large ichthyosaur that reached an estimated length of almost 9 m (29 ft). Although represented by at least

The Visual System in Vertebrates

This chapter discusses the topography of Vision in Mammals of Contrasting Life Style: Comparative Optics and Retinal Organisation.

Swimming capabilities of Mesozoic marine reptiles: implications for method of predation

Estimating the total drag and the amount of energy available through metabolism, the maximum sustained swimming speed was calculated for 115 marine reptile specimens and suggests that the long-bodied forms probably used an ambush technique to capture prey, to maximize the range of possible prey and to minimize competition with the faster pursuit predators.

Schematic Eye Models in Vertebrates

The fascinating diversity of vertebrate ocular structure was first captured in a single work by Soemmering in 1818 and the subsequent elucidation of general principles which may account for the diversity of eye structures is elucidated.

Allometry of diving capacity in air-breathing vertebrates

The diving capacities of penguins had the highest correlations with body mass, and many of the smaller taxonomic groups also had a strong allometric relationship between diving capacity (maximum depth and duration) and body mass.

The physiological basis of diving to depth: birds and mammals.

The aerobic endurance of four species has now been measured to provide a standard for other species in which the limits cannot be measured and to identify two diving strategies used by animals that dive to depth.

The Vertebrate Eye and Its Adaptive Radiation

The new Conductivity Bridge derives its bridge source. voltage from a self-contained vacuum tube oscilltor adjusted to approximately 1,000 cycles. Voltage for the amplifier and null indicator tubes