Large convection cells as the source of Betelgeuse's extended atmosphere

@article{Lim1998LargeCC,
  title={Large convection cells as the source of Betelgeuse's extended atmosphere},
  author={Jeremy Lim and C. Carilli and S. White and A. Beasley and R. Marson},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1998},
  volume={392},
  pages={575-577}
}
Supergiant stars such as Betelgeuse have very extended atmospheres, the properties of which are poorly understood. Alfvén waves, acoustic waves,, and radial pulsations have all been suggested as likely mechanisms for elevating these atmospheres and driving the massive outflows of gas seen in these stars: such mechanisms would heat the atmosphere from below, and there are indeed observations showing that Betelgeuse's extended atmosphere is hotter than the underlying photosphere,. Here we report… Expand

Figures from this paper

The inhomogeneous submillimeter atmosphere of Betelgeuse
The mechanisms responsible for heating the extended atmospheres of early-M spectral-type supergiants are poorly understood. So too is the subsequent role these mechanisms play in driving the largeExpand
The shock-heated atmosphere of an asymptotic giant branch star resolved by ALMA
Our current understanding of the chemistry and mass-loss processes in Sun-like stars at the end of their evolution depends critically on the description of convection, pulsations and shocks in theExpand
Temporal Evolution of the Size and Temperature of Betelgeuse's Extended Atmosphere
Spatially resolved multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations of cool evolved stars can not only constrain the morphology of the radio emitting regions, but can also directly probe the meanExpand
Electron Density and Turbulence Gradients within the Extended Atmosphere of the M Supergiant Betelgeuse (α Orionis)
The extended atmosphere of the M supergiant Betelgeuse is complex with cool plasma dominating the structure by mass and small amounts of embedded hotter chromospheric plasma. A major challenge is toExpand
Vigorous atmospheric motion in the red supergiant star Antares
TLDR
The two-dimensional velocity field map obtained from the near-infrared spectro-interferometric imaging reveals vigorous upwelling and downdrafting motions of several huge gas clumps at velocities ranging from about −20 to +20 kilometres per second in the atmosphere, which extends out to about 1.7 stellar radii. Expand
Resolving the extended stellar atmospheres of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars at (sub-)millimetre wavelengths
The initial conditions for the mass loss during the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase are set in their extended atmospheres, where, among others, convection and pulsation driven shocks determineExpand
A Spatially Resolved, Semiempirical Model for the Extended Atmosphere of α Orionis (M2 Iab)
We have constructed a detailed mean density and temperature model for the extended outer atmosphere of the O-rich supergiant Betelgeuse (??Ori [M2 Iab]), which extends from 1.0 to 10.0 stellar radii.Expand
Astronomy: A turbulent stellar atmosphere in full view
The dynamic motion of gas in the outer atmosphere of a red supergiant star has been mapped, providing clues to the mysterious mechanism that causes massive stars to lose mass through stellar winds.Expand
Late stages of stellar evolution – Herschel’s contributions ☆
Abstract Cool objects glow in the infrared. The gas and solid-state species that escape the stellar gravitational attraction of evolved late-type stars in the form of a stellar wind are cool, withExpand
GIANT CONVECTION CELL TURNOVER AS AN EXPLANATION OF THE LONG SECONDARY PERIODS IN SEMIREGULAR RED VARIABLE STARS
Giant convection cells in the envelopes of massive red supergiants turn over in a time comparable in order of magnitude with the observed long secondary periods in these stars, according to a theoryExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 23 REFERENCES
Momentum and energy deposition in late-type stellar atmospheres and winds
We have calculated the response of the outer atmospheres of cool, low-gravity stars to the passage of the mechanical energy fluxes of solar magnitude in the form of acoustic waves and Alfven waves.Expand
Dynamical modeling of long-period variable star atmospheres
Using a new flexible computer program, numerical calculations were performed to investigate the dynamical structure and behavior of a spherical model atmosphere for cool pulsating Mira-like starsExpand
Circumstellar environments — V. The asymmetric chromosphere and dust shell of a Orionis
We report new mid-infrared and radio images of the M supergiant (X Orionis. The radio images, taken with MERLIN! and the Very Large Array, resolve the chromosphere of the star at a wavelength of 6Expand
Radio Photospheres of Long-Period Variable Stars
We report the detection of centimeter-wavelength emission from a sample of nearby long-period (Mira and semiregular) variables using the VLA. Six of the eight stars in the sample were detected. WeExpand
Chromospheric extents predicted by time-dependent acoustic wave models
Theoretical models for chromospheric structures of late-type giant stars are computed, including the time-dependent propagation of acoustic waves. Models with short-period monochromatic shock wavesExpand
On the polarization of Alpha Orionis
Much of the complex behavior of the polarization observed in the M2 supergiant Alpha Ori can be explained in terms of the combined effects of Rayleigh scattering in the photosphere and scattering byExpand
On the Generation of Mass Loss in Cool Giant Stars Due to Propagating Shock Waves
This paper investigates mass loss in late-type giant stars produced by propagating shock waves, assuming both monochromatic waves and acoustic frequency spectra. In monochromatic wave computations,Expand
First Image of the Surface of a Star with the Hubble Space Telescope
A direct image of the surface of a star, Betelgeuse (=α Ori; M2 Iab), has been obtained with the Faint Object Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. Images in two ~300 A-wide bands centered at 2550Expand
Wave-driven winds from cool stars. I - Some effects of magnetic field geometry
The wave-driven wind theory of Hartmann and MacGregor is extended to include effects due to non-radial divergence of the flow. Specifically, isothermal expansion within a flow tube whoseExpand
Radii and Effective Temperatures for G, K, and M Giants and Supergiants
?????We present new interferometric observations for 74 luminous red stars, made in the near-infrared. We show that our 2.2 ?m uniform-disk diameters agree with other near-infrared diameterExpand
...
1
2
3
...