Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago

  title={Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago},
  author={Abderrazak El Albani and Stefan Bengtson and Donald E. Canfield and Andrey Bekker and Roberto Macchiarelli and Arnaud Mazurier and Emma U. Hammarlund and Philippe Boulvais and J. Dupuy and Claude Fontaine and Franz Theodor F{\"u}rsich and François Gauthier-Lafaye and Philippe Janvier and Emmanuelle J Javaux and Frantz Ossa Ossa and Anne‐Catherine Pierson‐Wickmann and A. Riboulleau and Paul Sardini and Daniel Vachard and Martin J. Whitehouse and Alain D. Meunier},
The evidence for macroscopic life during the Palaeoproterozoic era (2.5–1.6 Gyr ago) is controversial. Except for the nearly 2-Gyr–old coil-shaped fossil Grypania spiralis, which may have been eukaryotic, evidence for morphological and taxonomic biodiversification of macroorganisms only occurs towards the beginning of the Mesoproterozoic era (1.6–1.0 Gyr). Here we report the discovery of centimetre-sized structures from the 2.1-Gyr-old black shales of the Palaeoproterozoic Francevillian B… 
Organism motility in an oxygenated shallow-marine environment 2.1 billion years ago
Combined microscopic, microtomographic, geochemical, and sedimentologic analyses provide evidence for biogenicity, and syngenicity and suggest that the structures underwent fossilization during early diagenesis close to the sediment–water interface.
The 2.1 Ga Old Francevillian Biota: Biogenicity, Taphonomy and Biodiversity
Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life.
Decimetre-scale multicellular eukaryotes from the 1.56-billion-year-old Gaoyuzhuang Formation in North China
The discovery of macroscopic fossils from the 1,560-Myr-old Gaoyuzhuang Formation, Yanshan area, North China, that exhibit both large size and regular morphology provide the strongest evidence yet that multicellular eukaryotes with decimetric dimensions and a regular developmental program populated the marine biosphere at least a billion years before the Cambrian Explosion.
Geology around Natural Reactors and Birthplace of Eukaryotes
The evolution of eukaryotes is one of the most important issues in the history of life. Paleon-tological studies discovered the oldest eukaryotic fossil from the Paleoproterozoic Francevillian Group
Evolution of Precambrian life in the Brazilian geological record
Abstract Precambrian rocks comprise nearly one-quarter of the surface of Brazil and range from Paleoarchean (ca. 3.6 Ga) to the latest Ediacaran (0.542 Ga) in age. Except for controversial


Reassessing the first appearance of eukaryotes and cyanobacteria
The results eliminate the evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis ∼2.7 Gyr ago and exclude previous biomarker evidence for a long delay between the appearance of oxygen-producing cyanobacteria and the rise in atmospheric oxygen 2.45–2.32 billion years ago.
Eukaryotic organisms in Proterozoic oceans
Focus on character evolution permits inferences about the innovations in cell biology and development that underpin the taxonomic and morphological diversification of eukaryotic organisms.
The Paleoproterozoic megascopic Stirling biota
Abstract The 2.0–1.8-billion-year-old Stirling Range Formation in southwestern Australia preserves the deposits of a siliciclastic shoreline formed under the influence of storms, longshore currents,
Ediacaran microbial colonies
There is no support from the fossil record for identifying a radiate ancestry for the Metazoa, and at least some Ediacaran discoids can be compared with extant concentric ring-shaped microbial colonies that grow in hypersaline microbial mats.
Stromatolite reef from the Early Archaean era of Australia
A multi-kilometre-scale palaeontological and palaeoenvironmental study of the Strelley Pool Chert, in which the first morphotype-specific analysis of the structures within their palaioenvironment and refute contemporary abiogenic hypotheses for their formation are undertaken.
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old negaunee iron-formation, Michigan.
Hundreds of specimens of spirally coiled, megascopic, carbonaceous fossils resembling Grypania spiralis (Walcott), have been found in the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation at the Empire Mine, near Marquette, Michigan, placing the origin of organelle-bearing eukaryotic cells prior to 2.
The controversial “Cambrian” fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older
The Vindhyan phosphorites provide a window of 3-dimensionally preserved Paleoproterozoic fossils resembling filamentous and coccoidal cyanobacteria and filamentous eukaryotic algae, as well as problematic forms.
Dating the rise of atmospheric oxygen
It is found that syngenetic pyrite is present in organic-rich shales of the 2.32-Gyr-old Rooihoogte and Timeball Hill formations, South Africa, indicating that atmospheric oxygen was present at significant levels during the deposition of these units.