Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport

@article{Bourassa2012LargeVA,
  title={Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport},
  author={Adam E. Bourassa and Alan Robock and William J. Randel and Terry Deshler and Landon A. Rieger and Nicholas D. Lloyd and Edward J. Llewellyn and D. A. Degenstein},
  journal={Science},
  year={2012},
  volume={337},
  pages={78 - 81}
}
Indirect Injection Aerosols in the stratosphere, especially submicron-hydrated sulfuric acid droplets, are an important factor influencing climate variability. Stratospheric sulfate aerosols can form from sulfur dioxide that has been transported from the underlying troposphere. Large volcanic eruptions can inject sulfur dioxide and other material into the stratosphere, but smaller volcanoes have been thought not to be energetic enough to do so. Bourassa et al. (p. 78) used satellite data to… 

MIPAS observations of volcanic sulfate aerosol and sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere

Abstract. Volcanic eruptions can increase the stratospheric sulfur loading by orders of magnitude above the background level and are the most important source of variability in stratospheric sulfur.

Dispersion of the Nabro volcanic plume and its relation to the Asian summer monsoon

Abstract. We use nighttime measurements from the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, together with a Lagrangian trajectory model, to study the

Efficient transport of tropospheric aerosol into the stratosphere via the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone

  • P. YuK. Rosenlof R. Gao
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2017
In situ measurements combined with modeling work show that the aerosol formed within the ASM anticyclone is exported to the entire Northern Hemispheric stratosphere, and this region is about three times as efficient per unit area and time in populating the NH stratosphere with aerosol.

Comment on "Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport"

It is shown that the 13 June Nabro eruption plume was clearly stratospheric and contained both volcanic gases and aerosols, and height-resolved stratosphere sulfur dioxide and volcanic aerosol enhancements 1 to 3 days old, unaffected by the Asian monsoon, are precisely connected to the volcano.

Cloud and Surface Responses to Stratospheric Aerosols following Major Volcanic Eruptions

Major volcanic eruptions may inject large amounts of gases and aerosol particles into the lower stratosphere. Within weeks after an eruption, layers of aqueous sulfuric acid droplets will form from

Comment on "Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport"

An analysis of the CALIPSO lidar data indicates that the main part of the Nabro volcanic plume was injected directly into the lower stratosphere during the initial eruption well before reaching the Asian monsoon deep convective region.

Response to Comments on "Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport"

Wind trajectories and height-resolved profiles of sulfur dioxide indicate that although the eruption column may have extended higher than the Smithsonian report, it was overwhelmingly tropospheric, and provide further convincing evidence for convective transport of volcanic gas to the stratosphere from deep convection associated with the Asian monsoon.

Volcanic impact on the climate – the stratospheric aerosol load in the period 2006–2015

Abstract. We present a study on the stratospheric aerosol load during 2006–2015, discuss the influence from volcanism and other sources, and reconstruct an aerosol optical depth (AOD) data set in a

Characterisation of a stratospheric sulfate plume from the Nabro volcano using a combination of passive satellite measurements in nadir and limb geometry

Abstract. The eruption of the Nabro volcano (Eritrea), which started on 12 June 2011, caused the introduction of large quantities of SO2 into the lower stratosphere. The subsequently formed sulfate

MIPAS observations of volcanic sulphate aerosol and sulphur dioxide in the stratosphere

Volcanic eruptions can increase the stratospheric sulphur content by orders of magnitude above the background level and are the most important source of variability of stratospheric sulphur loading.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 35 REFERENCES

Asian Monsoon Transport of Pollution to the Stratosphere

The monsoon circulation provides an effective pathway for pollution from Asia, India, and Indonesia to enter the global stratosphere, using satellite observations of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a tropospheric pollutant produced in biomass burning.

Major influence of tropical volcanic eruptions on the stratospheric aerosol layer during the last decade

The variability of stratospheric aerosol loading between 1985 and 2010 is explored with measurements from SAGE II, CALIPSO, GOMOS/ENVISAT, and OSIRIS/Odin space‐based instruments. We find that,

Long range transport and fate of a stratospheric volcanic cloud from Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat

Volcanic eruptions emit gases, ash particles and hydrometeors into the atmosphere, occasionally reaching heights of 20 km or more, to reside in the stratospheric overworld where they affect the

Tropical stratospheric circulation deduced from satellite aerosol data

THE dispersal of volcanic material from large tropical eruptions provides insight into the circulation of the lower stratosphere. Here we infer stratospheric motions from zonal mean cross-sections of

Observations of the eruption of the Sarychev volcano and simulations using the HadGEM2 climate model.

[1] In June 2009 the Sarychev volcano located in the Kuril Islands to the northeast of Japan erupted explosively, injecting ash and an estimated 1.2 ± 0.2 Tg of sulfur dioxide into the upper

CALIPSO detection of an Asian tropopause aerosol layer

The first four years of the CALIPSO lidar measurements have revealed the existence of an aerosol layer at the tropopause level associated with the Asian monsoon season in June, July and August. This

Evolution of the stratospheric aerosol enhancement following the eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi: Odin‐OSIRIS measurements

[1] Limb-scattered sunlight measurements made by the OSIRIS instrument on the Odin spacecraft during the months following the eruptions of Mount Okmok and Kasatochi volcanos in 2008 are used to

Negligible climatic effects from the 2008 Okmok and Kasatochi volcanic eruptions

[1] We used a general circulation model of Earth's climate to conduct simulations of climate response to the July 12, 2008, eruption of Okmok volcano and the August 8, 2008, eruption of Kasatochi

Transport above the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone inferred from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder tracers

[1] Tracer variability above the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone is investigated using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of carbon monoxide, ozone, water vapor, and temperature during

Stratospheric aerosol optical depth observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II: Decay of the El Chichon and Ruiz volcanic perturbations

The decay of the El Chichon perturbation to the optical depth of stratospheric aerosols at 1.02 μm, 0.525 μm, and 0.453 μm is calculated from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II)