Large-Scale Psychological Differences Within China Explained by Rice Versus Wheat Agriculture

  title={Large-Scale Psychological Differences Within China Explained by Rice Versus Wheat Agriculture},
  author={Thomas Talhelm and Xuemin Zhang and Shigehiro Oishi and Cao Shimin and Dongyuan Duan and Xuezhao Lan and Shinobu Kitayama},
  pages={603 - 608}
Individualism Rules? On a diverse and large set of cognitive tests, subjects in East Asian countries are more inclined to display collectivist choices, whereas subjects in the United States are more inclined to score as individualists. Talhelm et al. (p. 603; see the Perspective by Henrich) suggest that one historical source of influence was societal patterns of farming rice versus wheat, based on three cognitive measures of individualism and collectivism in 1000 subjects from rice- and wheat… 
Commentary: Large-scale psychological differences within China explained by rice vs. wheat agriculture
The hypothesis that activities which require more intensive collaboration foster more collectivist cultures are tested, and a measure of collectivism correlates with the proportion of cultivated land devoted to rice paddies, is demonstrated.
Rice versus Wheat Cultures in China: An Investigation into Self Enhancement and Cultural Tightness
Talhelm et al. (2014) hypothesized that Chinese from northern provinces (traditionally wheatgrowing regions) are more independent or less interdependent than those from southern provinces
Teens in Rice County Are More Interdependent and Think More Holistically Than Nearby Wheat County
China’s smallest province Ningxia sits in North Central China. Surrounded by herding cultures to the north and wheat farmers to the south, Qingtongxia is a small outpost of rice farming fed by the
Emerging Evidence of Cultural Differences Linked to Rice versus Wheat Agriculture
  • T. Talhelm
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Current opinion in psychology
  • 2019
Rice, Psychology, and Innovation
People in wheat-cultivating areas of China are more individualistic and analytical than those in rice-cultivating areas. [Also see Research Article by Talhelm et al.] By the late 18th century, the
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