Large Cretaceous sphenodontian from Patagonia provides insight into lepidosaur evolution in Gondwana

  title={Large Cretaceous sphenodontian from Patagonia provides insight into lepidosaur evolution in Gondwana},
  author={Sebasti{\'a}n Apestegu{\'i}a and Fernando E Novas},
Sphenodontian reptiles successfully radiated during Triassic and Jurassic times, but were driven almost to extinction during the Cretaceous period. The sparse Early Cretaceous record of sphenodontians has been interpreted as reflecting the decline of the group in favour of lizards, their suspected ecological successors. However, recent discoveries in Late Cretaceous beds in Patagonia partially modify this interpretation. Numerous skeletons of a new sphenodontian, Priosphenodon avelasi gen. et… 
Earliest Tuatara Relative (Lepidosauria: Sphenodontinae) from Southern Continents
Abstract. The New Zealand tuatara (Sphenodon) is the sole surviving rhynchocephalian of a once thriving group across Pangea during early Mesozoic times. Outside New Zealand, close relatives of the
A Late Campanian Sphenodontid Maxilla from Northern Patagonia
Abstract At the end of the Early Cretaceous the once abundant sphenodontians vanished from the Laurasian record and were thought to have become virtually extinct, with the sole exception of
A basal sphenodontian (Lepidosauria) from the Jurassic of Patagonia: new insights on the phylogeny and biogeography of Gondwanan rhynchocephalians
A new rhynchocephalian taxon from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia, Argentina is described, representing the first Jurassic record of the group in South America and suggesting some degree of endemism during the initial stages of the breakup of Pangaea.
A new sphenodontian (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia) from the Late Triassic of Argentina and the early origin of the herbivore opisthodontians
A new sphenodontian is reported from the Upper Triassic Quebrada del Barro Formation of northwestern Argentina, identified as Sphenotitan leyesi gen. et sp.
An exceptionally preserved Sphenodon-like sphenodontian reveals deep time conservation of the tuatara skeleton and ontogeny
Sphenodontian reptiles are an extremely old evolutionary lineage forming the closest relatives to squamates (lizards and snakes) and were globally distributed and more diverse than squamates during
A sphenodontine (Rhynchocephalia) from the Miocene of New Zealand and palaeobiogeography of the tuatara (Sphenodon)
Jaws and dentition closely resembling those of the extant tuatara (Sphenodon) are described from the Manuherikia Group of Central Otago, New Zealand, a finding consistent with the view that the ancestors of Sphenodon have been on the landmass since it separated from the rest of Gondwana 82–60 Mya.
The youngest South American rhynchocephalian, a survivor of the K/Pg extinction
The new species shows that at least one group of rhynchocephalians not related to the extant Sphenodon survived in South America beyond the K/Pg extinction event, and adds to other trans-K/Pg ectotherm tetrapod taxa suggesting that the end-Cretaceous extinction affected Patagonia more benignly than the Laurasian landmasses.
Unexpected new lizard from the Late Cretaceous of southern South America sheds light on Gondwanan squamate diversity
: The record of Cretaceous terrestrial lizards (Squamata) in South America is patchy, with seven species described from north-eastern and south-eastern Brazil, and few isolated records of iguanians


New sphenodontians (Diapsida: Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia) from the Early Cretaceous of North Africa
Comparison with known Jurassic and Early Cretaceous genera suggests the Moroccan form of sphenodontian is sufficiently distinctive in its tooth and jaw morphology to warrant the erection of a new genus and species, Tingitana anoualae.
The Osteology and Relationships of Clevosaurus (Reptilia: Sphenodontida)
  • N. Fraser
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1988
The sphenodontid genus Clevosaurus from the late Triassic of south west Britain is represented by at least two different species, and it seems probable that a third species might be distinguished on the basis of dental characteristics, and the occurrence of a fourth species cannot be discounted.
A dwarf sphenodontian from the Jurassic La Boca Formation of Tamaulipas, México
A phylogenetic analysis of its relationships supports the hypothesis that it is among the closest relatives of the only extant sphenodontian, Sphenodon, however, the relationships of Z. ejidoensis could not be resolved with respect to Eilenodontinae, Opisthias, and a Cynosphenodon-Sphenodon clade.
A “beaded” sphenodontian (Diapsida: Lepidosauria) from the Early Cretaceous of central Mexico
The conspicuous dermal skeleton is similar to that of helodermatids, suggesting that it could have served to protect against predation in open environments, and argues against the idea of low morphological diversity within sphenodontians.
Rhynchocephalians (Diapsida: Lepidosauria) from the Jurassic Kota Formation of India
New sphenodontian material from the Jurassic Kota Formation of peninsular India indicates the presence of a primitive pleurodont lepidosauromorph similar to the basal rhynchocephaliansGephyrosaurus and Diphydontosaurus from Britain.
Cladistic analysis support sister-group relationship with Toxolophosaurus and/or Eilenodon on the basis of shared propalinal jaw action and deep jaws and the presence of two unique sphenodontians in the Tlayua Quarry suggests that this area was a refuge for archaic forms at the time.
The Triassic reptiles Brachyrhinodon and Polysphenodon and the relationships of the sphenodontids
Two Triassic sphenodontid reptiles, Brachyrhinodon taylori and Polysphenodon mulleri, are redescribed and it is assumed that the reduced snout has been independently derived in each genus.
A new sphenodontian (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia) from the McCoy Brook Formation (Lower Jurassic) of Nova Scotia, Canada
ABSTRACT A new sphenodontian lepidosaur referable to Clevosaurus Swinton, 1939, C. bairdi, is described from the McCoy Brook Formation (Lower Jurassic: Hettangian) of Nova Scotia, Canada. It is most
A lizard from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation, Araripe Basin, Brazil
A lizard from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil is the first from this Formation and one of the earliest recorded lizards from South America. The specimen represents a very young
Reexamination of the type mandible of Toxolophosaurus cloudi Olson, originally de- scribed as a trilophosaurid, indicates that this species is a member of the family Sphenodontidae, which shows clear evidence of an herbivorous diet.