Large‐Scale Diversification of Skull Shape in Domestic Dogs: Disparity and Modularity

@article{Drake2010LargeScaleDO,
  title={Large‐Scale Diversification of Skull Shape in Domestic Dogs: Disparity and Modularity},
  author={Abby Grace Drake and Christian Peter Klingenberg},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={2010},
  volume={175},
  pages={289 - 301}
}
The variation among domestic dog breeds offers a unique opportunity to study large‐scale diversification by microevolutionary mechanisms. We use geometric morphometrics to quantify the diversity of skull shape in 106 breeds of domestic dog, in three wild canid species, and across the order Carnivora. The amount of shape variation among domestic dogs far exceeds that in wild species, and it is comparable to the disparity throughout the Carnivora. The greatest shape distances between dog breeds… 
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