Laparoscopic surgery , perceptual limitations and force : A review

  title={Laparoscopic surgery , perceptual limitations and force : A review},
  author={H. Xina and J. S. Zeleka and H. Carnahanb},
  • H. Xina, J. S. Zeleka, H. Carnahanb
  • Published 2006
Laparoscopic surgery (LS) has become the standard in procedures such as cholecystectomy and splenectomy. However, LS imposes limitations in visual and haptic perceptions, and create challenges unique to this type of surgery: reduced depth perception of the operative field caused by the use of 2D monitors; poor hand-eye coordination as a result of location of the monitor, variable amplification, mirrored movement, and misorientation; motion limitations due to trocar-induced invariant points, and… CONTINUE READING


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