Lahars initiated by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

@article{Lowe1986LaharsIB,
  title={Lahars initiated by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia},
  author={Donald R. Lowe and Stanley N. Williams and Henry S. Leigh and Charles B. Connort and J. Bruce Gemmell and Richard E. Stoiber},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1986},
  volume={324},
  pages={51-53}
}
The eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia on 13 November 1985 was accompanied by the formation of four lahars (mud flows) triggered by the melting of glacial ice near the summit of the volcano. The lahars began as flows of water, sand and gravel, but they incorporated clay by eroding the soil along the steep valleys through which they passed. The largest flow was a cohesive debris flow, more than 45 m deep and moving at ∼12 ms−1 when it debouched from the canyon of the Rio Lagunilla 2.5 km… 
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References

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Nevado del Ruiz, northernmost active volcano in the Andes, erupted on November 13, 1985, triggering lahars that killed at least 22,000 persons and destroyed more than $212 million in property. The
Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985: Gas Flux and Fluid Geochemistry
TLDR
Large volumes of new magma and glacial ice make the volcano dangerous and should stimulate development of an integrated long-term monitoring program to include Tolima volcano, 25 kilometers to the south.
Initiation and flow behavior of the 1980 Pine Creek and Muddy River lahars, Mount St. Helens, Washington
Two large, high-velocity lahars (volcanic debris flows) were triggered by a pyroclastic surge during the first few minutes of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens. The initial surge cloud