Lahars initiated by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

  title={Lahars initiated by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia},
  author={Donald R. Lowe and Stanley N. Williams and Henry S. Leigh and Charles B. Connort and J. Bruce Gemmell and Richard E. Stoiber},
The eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia on 13 November 1985 was accompanied by the formation of four lahars (mud flows) triggered by the melting of glacial ice near the summit of the volcano. The lahars began as flows of water, sand and gravel, but they incorporated clay by eroding the soil along the steep valleys through which they passed. The largest flow was a cohesive debris flow, more than 45 m deep and moving at ∼12 ms−1 when it debouched from the canyon of the Rio Lagunilla 2.5 km… 
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