Executive Functions, Memory, and Social Cognitive Deficits and Recovery in Chronic Alcoholism: A Critical Review to Inform Future Research.
Thirty-seven middle-aged alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholic controls equated for age and education were examined on measures of verbal, learning/memory, abstracting/problem-solving, and perceptual-motor abilities 7 weeks after beginning detoxification and 13 months later. At 7 weeks, the alcoholics were significantly different from the controls on the verbal, abstracting/problem-solving, and perceptual-motor clusters and tended to differ on the learning/memory tests. At 13 months, the same pattern of differences was found except the groups no longer differed on the verbal tests. Alcoholics who resumed drinking during the 13 months differed from the controls to a greater extent than did abstainers on both the initial and final testings. These results have implications for treatment programs and recidivism.