Lack of Significant Skeletal Changes after Long-Term, Low-Dose Retinoid Therapy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

  title={Lack of Significant Skeletal Changes after Long-Term, Low-Dose Retinoid Therapy: Case Report and Review of the Literature},
  author={Caroline Halverstam and Joshua A. Zeichner and Mark G. Lebwohl},
  journal={Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery},
  pages={291 - 299}
Background: Long-term systemic retinoid therapy has been associated with skeletal side effects. There have been reports of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) syndrome, calcification of ligaments, and osteoporosis, as well as premature fusion of epiphyses and modeling abnormalities of long bones, occurring in patients on chronic high-dose isotretinoin, etretinate, and acitretin therapy. Low-dose acitretin has been used for many years as monotherapy or in combination with other… 

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