Lack of Exposed Ice Inside Lunar South Pole Shackleton Crater

  title={Lack of Exposed Ice Inside Lunar South Pole Shackleton Crater},
  author={Jun'ichi Haruyama and Makiko Ohtake and Tsuneo Matsunaga and Tomokatsu Morota and Chikatoshi Honda and Yasuhiro Yokota and Carle M. Pieters and Seiichi Hara and Kazuyuki Hioki and Kazuto Saiki and Hideaki Miyamoto and Akira Iwasaki and Masanao Abe and Yoshiko Ogawa and Hiroshi. Takeda and Motomaro Shirao and Atsushi Yamaji and J-L. Josset},
  pages={938 - 939}
The inside of Shackleton Crater at the lunar south pole is permanently shadowed; it has been inferred to hold water-ice deposits. The Terrain Camera (TC), a 10-meter-resolution stereo camera onboard the Selenological and Engineering Explorer (SELENE) spacecraft, succeeded in imaging the inside of the crater, which was faintly lit by sunlight scattered from the upper inner wall near the rim. The estimated temperature of the crater floor, based on the crater shape model derived from the TC data… 
An explanation of bright areas inside Shackleton Crater at the Lunar South Pole other than water‐ice deposits
Whether water molecules of cometary and/or solar wind origin migrated to and accumulated in cold permanently shadowed areas at the lunar poles has long been debated from the perspective of scientific
Constraints on the volatile distribution within Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole
Observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal Shackleton to be an ancient, unusually well-preserved simple crater whose interior walls are fresher than its floor and rim.
An upper limit for ice in Shackleton crater as revealed by LRO Mini‐RF orbital radar
Although diverse measurements have indicated H+, OH−, or H2O species in the lunar polar regions, pinpointing its location, form, and abundance in specific reservoirs has proven elusive. Here we
The age of lunar south circumpolar craters
The interiors of the lunar south circumpolar craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton contain permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and have been interpreted to contain sequestered
Effects of orbital evolution on lunar ice stability
[1] Many regions near the lunar poles are currently cold enough that surface water ice would be stable against sublimation losses for billions of years. However, most of these environments are
Using Boulder Tracks as a Tool to Understand the Bearing Capacity of Permanently Shadowed Regions of the Moon
Permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) are abundant at the lunar poles. They experience no direct sunlight and reach temperatures as low as 30 K. PSRs are of interest as evidence suggests that some may


No evidence for thick deposits of ice at the lunar south pole
New 20-m resolution, 13-cm-wavelength radar images are presented that show no evidence for concentrated deposits of water ice in Shackleton crater or elsewhere at the Moon's south pole, consistent with the ice being present only as disseminated grains in the lunar regolith.
Ice in the lunar polar regions
The idea that ice and other trapped volatiles exist in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles was proposed by Watson, Murray, and Brown [1961]. It is reexamined in the present paper, in
Integration of lunar polar remote‐sensing data sets: Evidence for ice at the lunar south pole
In order to investigate the feasibility of ice deposits at the lunar south pole, we have integrated all relevant lunar polar data sets. These include illumination data, Arecibo ground-based
Global lunar-surface mapping experiment using the Lunar Imager/Spectrometer on SELENE
The Moon is the nearest celestial body to the Earth. Understanding the Moon is the most important issue confronting geosciences and planetary sciences. Japan will launch the lunar polar orbiter
Polar hydrogen deposits on the Moon
Neutron and gamma-ray data measured using the Lunar Prospector spectrometers were analyzed to define the enhanced hydrogen deposits near both poles of the Moon. Combining the new low-altitude neutron
Space weathering effects on lunar cold trap deposits
[1] Both steady and episodic sources have been proposed as sources of hydrogen observed by Lunar Prospector in association with the regions of permanent shadow at the poles of the Moon. Either source
Fluxes of fast and epithermal neutrons from Lunar Prospector: evidence for water ice at the lunar poles.
Maps of epithermal- and fast-neutron fluxes measured by Lunar Prospector were used to search for deposits enriched in hydrogen at both lunar poles, and data are consistent with deposits of hydrogen in the form of water ice that are covered by as much as 40 centimeters of desiccated regolith within permanently shaded craters near both poles.
The Clementine Bistatic Radar Experiment
Analytical analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole, and that observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no enhancement.
The behavior of volatiles on the lunar surface
Volatiles, and water in particular, have been thought to be unstable on the lunar surface because of the rapid removal of constituents of the lunar atmosphere by solar radiation, solar wind, and