Laboratory versus outdoor cycling conditions: differences in pedaling biomechanics.

@article{Bertucci2007LaboratoryVO,
  title={Laboratory versus outdoor cycling conditions: differences in pedaling biomechanics.},
  author={William M Bertucci and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Grappe and Alain Groslambert},
  journal={Journal of applied biomechanics},
  year={2007},
  volume={23 2},
  pages={
          87-92
        }
}
The aim of our study was to compare crank torque profile and perceived exertion between the Monark ergometer (818 E) and two outdoor cycling conditions: level ground and uphill road cycling. Seven male cyclists performed seven tests in seated position at different pedaling cadences: (a) in the laboratory at 60, 80, and 100 rpm; (b) on level terrain at 80 and 100 rpm; and (c) on uphill terrain (9.25% grade) at 60 and 80 rpm. The cyclists exercised for 1 min at their maximal aerobic power. The… 

Tables from this paper

Gross efficiency and cycling economy are higher in the field as compared with on an Axiom stationary ergometer.

The data suggests that simulated cycling using the Axiom stationary ergometer differs from actual cycling in the field, and these results should be taken into account notably for improving the precision of the model of cycling performance.

Analysis of the pedaling biomechanics of master’s cyclists: A preliminary study

The crank torque represents the kinetics of the propulsive torque within the crank cycle. These kinetics are one of the important determinants of cycling performance. At our knowledge, works in

The effect of turbo trainer cycling on pedalling technique and cycling efficiency.

It is suggested that cycling technique and type of ergometer can be altered without affecting cycling efficiency, as well as the alterations in muscle activity and pedalling technique.

BIOMECHANICS AND ENERGETICS OF UPHILL CYCLING: A REVIEW

The main results from this review are that changes in muscular activity are present, while on the other hand pedal forces, joint dynamics, and cycling efficiency are not substantially altered during seated uphill cycling compared to cycling on level terrain.

Stationary roller versus velodrome for maximal cycling test: a comparison

The results suggest that identical cycling protocols conducted in different testing conditions with the same bike leads to similar responses to a maximal progressive exercise.

Original characteristics of a new cycle ergometer

The aim of this study was to describe and validate a new cycling ergometer with original characteristics that allow the measurement of biomechanical variables with position and crank inertial load

ENERGETICS OF UPHILL CYCLING : A REVIEW

The main results from this review are that changes in muscular activity are present, while on the other hand pedal forces, joint dynamics, and cycling efficiency are not substantially altered during seated uphill cycling compared to cycling on level terrain.

Physiological and Psychological Adaptations of Trained Cyclists to Spring Cycling Camps

Cycling training camps were associated with positive adaptations (increased cycling economy, gross mechanical efficiency and power output) as well as some mental benefits, which indicates that despite some significant physiological adaptations participants probably did not overreach during their CTC.

Effect of Changes in Cycle Ergometer Settings on Bioelectrical Activity in Selected Muscles of the Lower Limbs

The study found that changing the height of the saddle of the cycle ergometer and the use of toe clips in the pedals caused changes in bioelectrical activity in the muscles.

Lab and field V̇O2peak testing in highly trained cyclists

The increased ecological validity of field testing led to higher (but not statistically significant) V̇O2peak values and can be considered a viable alternative to labbased testing if a climb with suitable length and gradient is available.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 23 REFERENCES

Effect of cadence on the economy of uphill cycling.

It is concluded that uphill cycling is more economical at a high versus a low cadence during uphill cycling, compared with level cycling of high cadences.

Optimal pedalling velocity characteristics during maximal and submaximal cycling in humans

It is hypothesised that the distribution of muscle fibre type plays an important role in optimising both maximal and submaximal cycling performance in human, subjects with different training backgrounds.

The Pedaling Technique of Elite Endurance Cyclists: Changes with Increasing Workload at Constant Cadence

A pedal dynamometer recorded changes in pedaling technique of 14 elite male 40-km time trialists who rode at constant cadence as the workload increased, finding that negative torque about the bottom bracket during the upstroke usually became positive (propulsive) torque at the high workload.

Physiological and biomechanical factors associated with elite endurance cycling performance.

It appears that "elite-national class" cyclists have the ability to generate higher "downstroke power", possibly as a result of muscular adaptations stimulated by more years of endurance training.

Pedal and Crank Kinetics in Uphill Cycling.

The alteration in posture from sitting to standing on the hill permitted the subjects to produce different patterns of pedal and crank kinetics, characterized by significantly higher peak pedal force and crank torque that occurred much later in the downstroke.

Muscle coordination in cycling: effect of surface incline and posture.

Examining the neuromuscular modifications of cyclists to changes in grade and posture found muscle coordination among antagonist pairs of mono- and biarticular muscles was altered in the ST condition; this finding provides support for the notion that muscles within these antagonist pairs have different functions.

The influence of flywheel weight and pedalling frequency on the biomechanics and physiological responses to bicycle exercise.

The physiological, subjective and biomechanical effects of altering flywheel weight and pedalling rate on a Quinton Model 870 bicycle ergometer were studied and showed no statistically significant change in [Vdot]O2, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion of the FEI as a function of fly wheel weight.

Level ground and uphill cycling ability in professional road cycling.

Scaling of maximal and submaximal physiological values showed a performance advantage of TT over FT, AT, and UH in all cycling terrains and conditions; and mass exponents of 0.32 and 1 were the most appropriate to evaluate level and uphill cycling ability, respectively, whereas absolute Wmax values are recommended for performance-prediction in short events on level terrain.

Critical power is related to cycling time trial performance.

It is concluded that W(CP) provides an aerobic fitness measure for competitive cyclists which can be obtained without invasive testing, and is strongly related to the TT performance of competitive cyclists.