Laboratory confirmation of C60+ as the carrier of two diffuse interstellar bands

  title={Laboratory confirmation of C60+ as the carrier of two diffuse interstellar bands},
  author={Ewen K Campbell and Mathias Holz and Dieter Gerlich and John Paul Maier},
The diffuse interstellar bands are absorption lines seen towards reddened stars. None of the molecules responsible for these bands have been conclusively identified. Two bands at 9,632 ångströms and 9,577 ångströms were reported in 1994, and were suggested to arise from C60+ molecules (ref. 3), on the basis of the proximity of these wavelengths to the absorption bands of C60+ measured in a neon matrix. Confirmation of this assignment requires the gas-phase spectrum of C60+. Here we report… 


Based on gas-phase laboratory spectra at 6 K, Campbell et al. confirmed that the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 9632.7 and 9577.5 Å are due to absorption by the fullerene ion C 60 + . ?> They

Confirming Interstellar C60+ Using the Hubble Space Telescope

Recent advances in laboratory spectroscopy lead to the claim of ionized Buckminsterfullerene (C ) as the carrier of two diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the near-infrared. However, irrefutable

${{{\rm{C}}}_{60}}^{+}$ and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands: An Independent Laboratory Check

In 2015, Campbell et al. presented spectroscopic laboratory gas phase data for the fullerene cation, , that coincide with the reported astronomical spectra of two diffuse interstellar band (DIB)

Perspective: C60+ and laboratory spectroscopy related to diffuse interstellar bands.

Though many species were found to have electronic transitions in the visible where the majority of diffuse bands are observed, none of the absorptions matched the prominent interstellar features and in 2015, the first carrier molecule was identified: C60+.

The EDIBLES survey II. The detectability of C60+ bands

Gas phase spectroscopic laboratory experiments for the buckminsterfullerene cation C60+ have resulted in accurate rest wavelengths for five C60+ transitions that have been compared with diffuse

Pathway to the identification of C60+ in diffuse interstellar clouds

  • J. MaierE. Campbell
  • Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2016
The identification process is reviewed placing special emphasis on the laboratory studies which have enabled spectroscopic measurement of large cations cooled to temperatures prevailing in the interstellar medium, providing the first answer to the problem of the diffuse interstellar bands.


The wavelengths of the strongest absorptions in the electronic spectrum of C 60 + have been determined by experimental investigation into the perturbation caused by the helium in the laboratory

Interstellar Lines and Diffuse Bands in the Spectrum of the Supergiant κ Cas

We have studied the interstellar lines and diffuse bands in the spectrum of the supergiant κ Cas using the CCD spectra obtained with the Echelle spectrograph of the 2 meter telescope at the peak

Astrochemistry: Fullerene solves an interstellar puzzle

Laboratory measurements confirm that a 'buckyball' ion is responsible for two near-infrared absorption features found in spectra of the interstellar medium, casting light on a century-old



Detection of two interstellar absorption bands coincident with spectral features of C60+

MORE than a hundred well-defined absorption bands, arising from diffuse gas in the interstellar medium, have been observed in the visible and near-infrared spectra of stars 1–4. The identity of the

The Search for Interstellar C60

The optical region of a number of reddened O-type stars has been examined on Keck I HIRES spectrograms (R = 45,000) for evidence of interstellar C60. No absorption features were detected near the

On the identification of the C+60 interstellar features

The identity of the carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) is one of the most fascinating puzzles of modern spectroscopy. Over the last few years the number of known DIBs has grown

The Diffuse Interstellar Bands

The diffuse interstellar bands are absorption features observed in the spectra of stars seen through significant column densities of interstellar material. Of the 127 confirmed DIBs in the optical

Diffuse interstellar bands near 9600 A: not due to C60 + yet

High spectral resolution studies of the two Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIB) previously assigned to C60 + (9577 and 9632) conrm that these DIBs have the same full-width- at-half-maximum and behave


The fullerene C60 has four infrared-active vibrational transitions at 7.0, 8.5, 17.4, and 18.9 μm. We have previously observed emission features at 17.4 and 18.9 μm in the reflection nebula NGC 7023

New evidences for interstellar C60

The discovery and synthesis of fullerenes led to the hypothesis that they may be present and stable in interstellar space. As rst evidence for the largest molecule ever detected in space, we have

H3+ in Diffuse Interstellar Clouds: A Tracer for the Cosmic-Ray Ionization Rate

Using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy we have surveyed twenty sight lines for H3+ absorption. H3+ is detected in eight diffuse cloud sight lines with column densities varying from 0.6 × 1014 to

Detection of C3 in Diffuse Interstellar Clouds

The smallest polyatomic carbon chain, C3, has been identified in interstellar clouds (Av ~ 1 mag) toward ζ Ophiuchi, 20 Aquilae, and ζ Persei by detection of the origin band in its A 1Πu-X 1Σ

Detection of C60 and C70 in a Young Planetary Nebula

The environment of Tc 1, a peculiar planetary nebula whose infrared spectrum shows emission from cold and neutral C60 and C70, is studied, indicating that if the conditions are right, fullerenes can and do form efficiently in space.