La Raza: Mexicans in the United States Census

  title={La Raza: Mexicans in the United States Census},
  author={Brian Gratton and Emily Klancher Merchant},
  journal={Journal of Policy History},
  pages={537 - 567}
In 1930, the United States Census for the fi rst and only time included a “Mexican” category on the race variable. Th is racial classifi cation appeared in other federal records during the 1930s and was not fully rejected until 1939. In the 1940 census, the “Mexican” race category had disappeared, with enumerators instructed that “Mexicans are to be regarded as white unless defi nitely of Indian or other nonwhite race.” 1 Th is article traces the rise and disappearance of the “Mexican” racial… 
An Immigrant's Tale: The Mexican American Southwest 1850 to 1950
Recent scholarship on Mexican Americans in the United States, relying largely on qualitative evidence, sees racism and exploitation as the major explanatory factors in their history. Using
Ethno-Racial Origin in US Federal Statistics: 1980-2020
This paper describes the transformations in federal classification of ethno-racial information since the civil rights era of the 1960s. These changes were introduced in the censuses of 1980 and 2000,
From Multiracial to Monoracial: The Formation of Mexican American Identities in the U.S. Southwest
The racialization of Mexican Americans in northern Mexico, that is, the U.S. Southwest, following the Anglo-Americanization during the second half of the nineteenth century, is an excellent case
El Sueño Americano? The Generational Progress of Mexican Americans Prior to World War II
We present new estimates of the outcomes of first-generation Mexicans and their descendants between 1880 and 1940. We find zero convergence of the economic gap between Mexicans and non-Mexican whites
The Alien Citizen: Social Distance and the Economic Returns to Naturalization in the Southwest
Citizenship acquisition is often promoted as one factor that can facilitate the economic integration of immigrants. However, not all individuals and groups experience positive benefits to
A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Study of the Lived Experiences of Spanish Elementary Dual Immersion Principals
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological hermeneutic study was to describe the lived experiences of Spanish elementary dual immersion school principals who have led or are leading in Spanish


Race or People: Federal Race Classifications for Europeans in America, 1898--1913
In 1898 the U.S. Bureau of Immigration initiated a classification of immigrants into some 40 categories of "race or people;" nearly all the categories covered Europeans. In 1909 an effort was made to
A Quiet Victory for Latino Rights: FDR and the Controversy Over "Whiteness"
In 1935 a federal court judge handed down a ruling that could have been disastrous for Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and all Latinos in the United States. However, in an unprecedented move, the
Immigration, Repatriation, and Deportation: The Mexican-Origin Population in the United States, 1920–1950 1
Scholars conventionally assert that government authorities forcibly expelled 500,000 persons of Mexican origin from the U.S. in the 1930s, with more than half of those removed U.S. citizens.
The Language of Blood: The Making of Spanish-American Identity in New Mexico, 1880s-1930s
When the United States declared war on Spain in 1898, rumours abounded throughout the nation that the Spanish-speaking population of New Mexico secretly sympathised with the enemy. At the end of the
Classifying racial and ethnic group data: The politics of negotiation and accommodation
"Standards for Maintaining, Collecting, and Presenting Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity," formerly known as "Statistical Policy Directive 15," is a classification system that has formed the basis
The Texas-Mexican and the Politics of South Texas
Politics has been referred to by a recent writer as a “great game,” which, it may be added, is played ordinarily, not in a political vacuum between a majority and an opposing minority, but rather by
Racism: A Short History
Racism: A Short History. By George M. Fredrickson. (Princeton: Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002). Pp ix, 216. Acknowledgments, introduction, epilogue, appendix, notes, index. $22.95.)
Population of the United States, 1925 to 1975
In view of the interest in population growth in the United States and the practical value that accurate estimates of future growth would have, there is here presented an estimate of the population of
Eugenic Acculturation
In January 1939 the anthropologist Manuel Gamio toured the hinterlands of the Mexican border town of Matamoros, Tamaulipas, to examine the progress of the federal government's Valle Bajo Rio Bravo