LUMINOUS AND VARIABLE STARS IN M31 AND M33. I. THE WARM HYPERGIANTS AND POST-RED SUPERGIANT EVOLUTION*

@article{Humphreys2013LUMINOUSAV,
  title={LUMINOUS AND VARIABLE STARS IN M31 AND M33. I. THE WARM HYPERGIANTS AND POST-RED SUPERGIANT EVOLUTION*},
  author={Roberta M. Humphreys and Kris Davidson and Skyler H. Grammer and Nathan Kneeland and John Carl Martin and K. Weis and Birgitta Burggraf},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2013},
  volume={773},
  pages={46}
}
The progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) have an apparent upper limit to their initial masses of about 20 M ☉, suggesting that the most massive red supergiants evolve to warmer temperatures before their terminal explosion. But very few post-red supergiants are known. We have identified a small group of luminous stars in M31 and M33 that are candidates for post-red supergiant evolution. These stars have A-F-type supergiant absorption line spectra and strong hydrogen emission. Their spectra… Expand
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