Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Salmonella typhosa was injected into C57B1/6 mice and the effect on bone marrow (BM) natural suppressor (NS) cell activity was examined. It was shown that injection of LPS, as low as 0.01 microgram/g body weight, could enhance BM NS activity. The enhanced activity was apparent 24 hr postinjection, and returned to normal by Day 5. It was necessary to show that the enhanced suppression displayed characteristics of NS cells. The suppressor cell is Thy negative and can be found in low density Percoll fractions. Suppression was dependent upon interferon-gamma and could be augmented by lymphokines that were contained in the supernatant of TH2 helper cell. The data suggest that BM NS activity may be influenced in vivo during gram-negative sepsis.