author={Jon. Pollock},
  journal={Developmental Medicine \& Child Neurology},
  • J. Pollock
  • Published 1 May 1994
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Information on infant feeding and child development was obtained from the 1970 British Births Survey and subsequent follow‐ups at five and 10 years of age. A clinically advantaged subsample of infants who were either exclusively bottle‐fed or exclusively breast‐fed for at least three months were selected in order to minimise biases against a disadvantaged bottle‐fed group. Only in the area of educational ability and attainment were differences observed as a function of the child's feeding… 

Breast feeding and cognitive development in childhood: a prospective birth cohort study.

The early introduction of milk other than breast milk was associated with reduced verbal IQ after adjustment for social and perinatal confounders and interactions between maternal education and breast feeding.

Effect of breastfeeding on cognitive performance in a British birth cohort.

Path analysis showed that breastfeeding may have an effect even into adult life, and children who were breastfed longer showed earlier developmental milestones and scored higher in verbal tests.

Breast feeding and cognitive development at age 1 and 5 years

AIM To examine whether duration of breast feeding has any effect on a child's cognitive or motor development in a population with favourable environmental conditions and a high prevalence of breast

Influence of breastfeeding on cognitive outcomes at age 6-8 years: follow-up of very low birth weight infants.

The authors found that breastfed children evidenced an advantage only for measures specific to visual-motor integration, and careful measurement can reduce residual confounding and may clarify causal relations.

Breastfeeding, dummy use, and adult intelligence

A critical evaluation of the evidence on the association between type of infant feeding and cognitive development.

The question of whether breast feeding and formula feeding have differential effects on cognitive development has not yet been comprehensively answered and future studies should measure breast feeding as a continuous dose-type variable, examine longer durations of breast feed and control for a full range of confounders using techniques that deal appropriately with multicollinearity.

Infant nutrition and cognitive development in the first offspring of a national UK birth cohort

Comparison of verbal ability scores at age 8 years in 511 first‐born offspring of the National Survey of Health and Development who were ever or never breastfed found that breastfeeding was increasingly associated with a non‐manual social class across the generations although it remains unclear how this might mediate the effect of breastfeeding on cognitive performance.

Duration of breastfeeding and developmental milestones during the latter half of infancy

The data support the hypothesis that breastfeeding benefits neurodevelopment, and three developmental milestones related to general and fine motor skills and early language development at the age of 8 mo.

Breastfeeding duration, milk fat composition and developmental indices at 1 year of life among breastfed infants.

Prolonging breastfeeding during the weaning process may result in a better developmental performance at 12 months, possibly due to the supply of fats affecting brain composition.




The influence of breast feeding on developmental tests at five years of age was assessed and it was concluded that breast feeding may have an effect on children's development atFive years: the effect is relatively small but resistant to attempts at statistical control.

Mother's choice to provide breast milk and developmental outcome.

Babies whose mothers chose to provide milk had an 8 point advantage in mean Bayley mental developmental index over infants of mothers choosing not to do so, and this significant residual developmental advantage relates to parental factors or to a beneficial effect of human milk itself on brain development.

Feeding in Infancy and Later Ability and Attainment: a Longitudinal Study

  • B. Rodgers
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Developmental medicine and child neurology
  • 1978
Attainment tests completed by members of the National Survey of Health and Development (1946 birth cohort) showed that those who had been entirely bottle‐fed in infancy scored significantly lower

Some Maternal and Child Developmental Characteristics Associated with Breast Feeding: A Report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study

A study of some maternal, experiential, and developmental characteristics of 1037 three‐year-old children who were breast fed for varying lengths of time indicated that those children who breast fed longest had advantaged mothers and more developmental experiences.

Breast-feeding and cognitive development.

Multicentre trial on feeding low birthweight infants: effects of diet on early growth.

A major dietary effect on the number of days taken to regain birthweight and subsequent gains in weight, length, and head circumference was observed in the primary trial and similar though smaller differences in growth patterns were seen in the supplement trial.

Potential effect of demographic and other variables in studies comparing morbidity of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants.

There is need for more cautious use of the available data and investigators must seek ways to design future studies to take into account the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding mothers that affect both reported and actual infant morbidity.

Protective effect of breast feeding against infection.

Breast feeding during the first 13 weeks of life confers protection against gastrointestinal illness that persists beyond the period of breast feeding itself, and was accompanied by a reduction in the rate of hospital admission.