LIMITS ON THE STOCHASTIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BACKGROUND FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN NANOHERTZ OBSERVATORY FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVES

@article{Demorest2012LIMITSOT,
  title={LIMITS ON THE STOCHASTIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BACKGROUND FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN NANOHERTZ OBSERVATORY FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVES},
  author={Paul B. Demorest and Robert D. Ferdman and M. E. Gonzalez and David J. Nice and Scott M. Ransom and Ingrid H. Stairs and Zaven Arzoumanian and Adam Brazier and Sarah Burke-Spolaor and Sydney JoAnne Chamberlin and James M. Cordes and J. A. Ellis and Lee Samuel Finn and Paulo C. C. Freire and Stefanos Giampanis and Fredrick A. Jenet and Victoria M. Kaspi and Joseph Lazio and Andrea N. Lommen and Maura Mclaughlin and Nipuni T. Palliyaguru and D. Perrodin and Ryan M. Shannon and Xavier Siemens and Daniel R. Stinebring and Joseph K. Swiggum and W. W. Zhu},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2012},
  volume={762}
}
We present an analysis of high-precision pulsar timing data taken as part of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project. We have observed 17 pulsars for a span of roughly five years using the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes. We analyze these data using standard pulsar timing models, with the addition of time-variable dispersion measure and frequency-variable pulse shape terms. Sub-microsecond timing residuals are obtained in nearly all cases, and… 
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