LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory

  title={LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory},
  author={B. P. Abbott and Richard J. Abbott and Rana X. Adhikari and Parameswaran Ajith and Bruce Allen and Graham Scott Allen and Rupal S. Amin and Simon Anderson and Warren G. Anderson and Muzammil A. Arain and M. C. Araya and Helena Armandula and P. Armor and Youichi Aso and Stuart M. Aston and Peter Aufmuth and C. Aulbert and Stanislav Babak and Paul T. Baker and Stefan W. Ballmer and C. Barker and Daniel H. N. Barker and B. W. Barr and Pablo Jos{\'e} Barriga and Lisa Barsotti and Mark Andrew Barton and Imre Bartos and Riccardo Bassiri and M. Bastarrika and Beate Behnke and Matthew J. Benacquista and J Betzwieser and P. T. Beyersdorf and I. A. Bilenko and G Billingsley and Rahul Biswas and E. Black and J. K. Blackburn and Lindy L. Blackburn and D G Blair and B. Bland and T. P. Bodiya and Lauren Bogue and R. G. Bork and Valerio Boschi and Sukanta Bose and P. R. Brady and V. B. Braginsky and J. E. Brau and D. O. Bridges and Marc Brinkmann and A. F. Brooks and D. A. Brown and A. Brummit and G. Brunet and Amber L. Bullington and Alessandra Buonanno and Oliver Burmeister and R. L. Byer and Laura Cadonati and Jordan B. Camp and John K. Cannizzo and K. C. Cannon and J. Cao and L. C{\'a}rdenas and Santiago Caride and Giuseppe Castaldi and Sarah Caudill and Marco Cavagli{\`a} and Carlos Cepeda and Tara Chalermsongsak and E. Chalkley and P R Charlton and Shourov Chatterji and Simon Chelkowski and Y. R. Chen and Nelson Christensen and C. T. Y. Chung and Donald E. Clark and James S. Clark and J. H. Clayton and Thomas Cokelaer and Carlo Nicola Colacino and Roberto Conte and D. Cook and T. R. Corbitt and Neil J. Cornish and D. M. Coward and D C Coyne and Jolien D. E. Creighton and T. D. Creighton and A. M. Cruise and R. M. Culter and Andrew Cumming and L. Cunningham and S. L. Danilishin and Karsten Danzmann and Britta Daudert and G. S. Cabourn Davies and E J Daw and Daniel B. DeBra and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Degallaix and Vladimir Dergachev and Saleem Desai and Riccardo DeSalvo and S. V. Dhurandhar and M. C. D{\'i}az and Alexander Dietz and Frederick J. Donovan and K. L. Dooley and E. E. Doomes and Ronald W. P. Drever and Johannes Dueck and I. Duke and J-C. Dumas and John G. Dwyer and C. Echols and Matthew P. Edgar and Anamaria Effler and Phil Ehrens and E. Espinoza and Todd Etzel and M. Evans and Tom P. Evans and Stephen Fairhurst and Y. Faltas and Y. Fan and Diego Fazi and H Fehrmenn and Lee Samuel Finn and Kurt Flasch and Stephany Foley and C. Forrest and Nickolas V Fotopoulos and Alexander Franzen and Matthias Frede and Melissa A. Frei and Zsolt Frei and Andreas Freise and R. Frey and T. T. Fricke and P. Fritschel and Valera Frolov and Matthew Fyffe and Vincenzo Galdi and J. A. Garofoli and Iraj Gholami and J. A. Giaime and Stefanos Giampanis and K. D. Giardina and Katuhiko Goda and Evan Goetz and Lisa M. Goggin and Gabriela Gonz{\'a}lez and Mikhail L. Gorodetsky and Stefan Gossler and R. Gouaty and A. Grant and Slawomir Gras and C. Gray and Malcolm B. Gray and R. Justin S. Greenhalgh and A M Gretarsson and Francesca Maria Grimaldi and Ryan Grosso and Hartmut Grote and S. Grunewald and Mathias Guenther and E. K. Gustafson and Richard Gustafson and Boris Hage and J. M. Hallam and David Hammer and Giles D. Hammond and Chad Hanna and James E. Hanson and Jan Harms and Gregory M. Harry and I. W. Harry and E. D. Harstad and K. Haughian and Kazuhiro Hayama and J. W. Heefner and Ik Siong Heng and Alastair Heptonstall and Martin Hewitson and Stefan Hild and Eiichi Hirose and David C. Hoak and Kari Alison Hodge and K. Holt and D. J. Hosken and J. Hough and David Hoyland and Barbara J. Hughey and S. H. Huttner and D. R. Ingram and Tomoki Isogai and M. Ito and Anton B. Ivanov and Ben Johnson and W. W. Johnson and D. I. Jones and Glenn Jones and R. Jones and Li Ju and Peter Kalmus and Vicky Kalogera and S Kandhasamy and Jonah Kanner and Danuta Kasprzyk and Erotokritos Katsavounidis and Keita Kawabe and Seiji Kawamura and Fumiko Kawazoe and William P. Kells and D. G. Keppel and Alexander Khalaidovski and F. Ya. Khalili and R. Khan and E. Khazanov and Peter King and J S Kissel and Sergei Klimenko and Keiko Kokeyama and V. T. Kondrashov and Ravi kumar Kopparapu and Scott Koranda and Darby Kozak and Badri Krishnan and R. Kumar and Patrick Kwee and Ping Koy Lam and Michael Landry and Brian Lantz and Albert Lazzarini and Hansheng Lei and Ming Lei and Nick C. Leindecker and Isabel B. Leonor and C. Li and H. L. Lin and P. E. Lindquist and Tyson B. Littenberg and N. A. Lockerbie and Deepali Lodhia and M. J. Longo and Marc Lormand and P. Lu and M. J. Lubinski and Antonio Lucianetti and Harald L{\"u}ck and B. Machenschalk and Myron Macinnis and M. Mageswaran and K. Mailand and Ilya Mandel and Vuk Mandic and S. M{\'a}rka and Zsuzsanna Marka and Ashot Markosyan and Jared John Markowitz and Edward Maros and I. W. Martin and R. M. Martin and J. N. Marx and Kenneth R Mason and F. Matichard and Luca Matone and R. A. Matzner and Nergis Mavalvala and R. L. McCarthy and D E McClelland and Scott C. McGuire and Martin P. McHugh and G. McIntyre and David McKechan and Kirk McKenzie and Moritz Mehmet and Andrew Melatos and A. C. Melissinos and D. F. Men{\'e}ndez and Greg Mendell and Richard A J Mercer and Sydney Meshkov and Chris Messenger and Manuel Meyer and J. R. Miller and Janaina Minelli and Yoshihiro Mino and Vp. Mitrofanov and Gena Mitselmakher and Richard K Mittleman and Osamu Miyakawa and Brian Moe and S. D. Mohanty and Satyanarayan Ray Pitambar Mohapatra and Gerardo Moreno and Tomoko Morioka and K. Mors and Kasem Mossavi and C Mowlowry and Guido Mueller and Helge M{\"u}ller-Ebhardt and D. Muhammad and Subroto Mukherjee and Himan Mukhopadhyay and Adam J Mullavey and Jesper Munch and P. G. Murray and E. Myers and Joshua Myers and Thomas Nash and J. M. Nelson and G. P. Newton and Akio Nishizawa and Kenji Numata and Joseph O'Dell and Brian O'reilly and Richard O’Shaughnessy and Evan Ochsner and G. H. Ogin and D. J. Ottaway and R. S. Ottens and Harry Overmier and Benjamin J. Owen and Y. B. Pan and Chris Pankow and Maria Alessandra Papa and V. Parameshwaraiah and P. Patel and M. Pedraza and Stephen Penn and A. Perraca and Vincenzo Pierro and I. M. Pinto and Matthew Pitkin and H. J. Pletsch and Michael V Plissi and Fabio Postiglione and M. Principe and Reinhard Prix and Leonid Prokhorov and O. Punken and V. Quetschke and F. J. Raab and D. S. Rabeling and Hugh Radkins and P{\'e}ter Raffai and Zolt{\'a}n Raics and N. Rainer and Malik Rakhmanov and V Raymond and C. M. Reed and T. Reed and Henning Rehbein and Stuart Reid and D. H. Reitze and R. Riesen and Keith Riles and B. Rivera and P. Roberts and N. A. Robertson and C. A. K. Robinson and E. L. Robinson and Shaun Roddy and Carsten R{\"o}ver and Jameson Graef Rollins and J. D. Romano and J. H. Romie and Sheila Rowan and A. O. R{\"u}diger and P. Russell and Kris Ryan and Shihori Sakata and L. Sancho de la Jordana and V. D. Sandberg and Virginio Sannibale and Luc{\'i}a Santamar{\'i}a and Siddhant Saraf and Pradeep Sarin and B. S. Sathyaprakash and Shuichi Sato and Mark Satterthwaite and P. R. Saulson and Richard L. Savage and Pavlin Savov and M Scanlan and Roland Schilling and Roman Schnabel and Robert M. S. Schofield and Bastian Schulz and B. F. Schutz and P. B. Schwinberg and J. Scott and S. M. Scott and Antony C. Searle and B. Sears and F. Seifert and Danny Sellers and Anand S. Sengupta and A. S. Sergeev and B. Shapiro and Peter Shawhan and D. H. Shoemaker and Anna Sibley and Xavier Siemens and Daniel Sigg and Supriyo Sinha and A. M. Sintes and B J J Slagmolen and Jacob Slutsky and Joshua R. Smith and M. R. Smith and Nicolas de Mateo Smith and Kentaro Somiya and Borja Sorazu and Andrew J. Stein and L. C. Stein and S. Steplewski and Alberto Stochino and Robert Stone and Kenneth Strain and Sergey Strigin and A. S. Stroeer and Al. Stuver and T. Z. Summerscales and K-X Sun and Myungkee Sung and P. Sutton and G. P. Szokoly and Dipongkar Talukder and L. Tang and David B. Tanner and S. P. Tarabrin and J. R. Taylor and R. D. Taylor and J. Thacker and Keith A. Thorne and Andr{\'e} Th{\"u}ring and K. Tokmakov and Cristina Torres and C. I. Torrie and Gary Traylor and Miquel Trias and Dennis Wayne Ugolini and John Ulmen and Karel E. Urbanek and Henning Vahlbruch and Michele Vallisneri and Chris van den Broeck and M. V. van der Sluys and Anna-Maria A van Veggel and Steve Vass and Ruslan Vaulin and Alberto Vecchio and John Veitch and Peter J. Veitch and Christian Veltkamp and Akira E. Villar and Cheryl Vorvick and S. P. Vyachanin and Samuel J. Waldman and L. Wallace and Robert L. Ward and Andreas Weidner and Michael Weinert and Alan J. Weinstein and Robert E. Weiss and Longping Wen and S. Wen and Karl Wette and James Whelan and S. E. Whitcomb and B. F. Whiting and Clive R. Wilkinson and Phil A. Willems and H. R. Williams and L. Williams and Benno Willke and Ian Wilmut and Lutz Winkelmann and Walter Winkler and C. C. Wipf and A. G. Wiseman and Graham Woan and R. Wooley and John R. Worden and W W Wu and Igor Yakushin and H Yamamoto and Z. Yan and Shuhei Yoshida and Michele Zanolin and J. Zhang and L. Zhang and C Zhao and Natalia V. Zotov and Michael Edward Zucker and Hermynia zur M{\"u}hlen and J. G. Zweizig},
  journal={Reports on Progress in Physics},
The goal of the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is to detect and study gravitational waves (GWs) of astrophysical origin. Direct detection of GWs holds the promise of testing general relativity in the strong-field regime, of providing a new probe of exotic objects such as black holes and neutron stars and of uncovering unanticipated new astrophysics. LIGO, a joint Caltech–MIT project supported by the National Science Foundation, operates three multi-kilometer… 

Reports on Progress in Physics LIGO : the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory

The goal of the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is to detect and study gravitational waves (GWs) of astrophysical origin. Direct detection of GWs holds the promise of

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project

  • D. Coyne
  • Physics
    1996 IEEE Aerospace Applications Conference. Proceedings
  • 1996
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), a USA National Science Foundation sponsored project being performed jointly by the California Institute of Technology and the

Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light

Nearly a century after Einstein first predicted the existence of gravitational waves, a global network of Earth-based gravitational wave observatories1, 2, 3, 4 is seeking to directly detect this

Sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO detectors at the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) consists of two widely separated 4 km laser interferometers designed to detect gravitational waves from distant astrophysical sources in

Observational results from the LIGO and Virgo detectors

The first generation of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors, LIGO, GEO and Virgo, have operated and taken data at their design sensitivities over the last few years. The data

Gravitational waves from compact objects

Large ground-based laser beam interferometers are presently in operation both in the USA (LIGO) and in Europe (VIRGO) and potential sources that might be detected by these instruments are revisited.

Laser Interferometers, Gravitational waves and Echos from the Universe

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and its sister project Virgo aim for the first direct detections of gravitational waves. Such detections will provide not only a test of

Gravitational Wave Detection by Interferometry (Ground and Space)

The main theme of this review is a discussion of the mechanical and optical principles used in the various long baseline systems in operation around the world — LIGO, Virgo, TAMA300 and LCGT, and GEO600 — and in LISA, a proposed space-borne interferometer.

Gravitational-Wave Astronomy: Aspects of the Theory of Binary Sources and Interferometric Detectors

This thesis presents a study of several problems and issues in the nascent field of gravitational-wave astronomy. Multi-kilometer baseline interferometers are being built in the United States [the



Experimental demonstration of dual recycling for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors.

Dual recycling will allow better performance from laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors when searching for continuous radiation from pulsars, for a stochastic background from cosmic strings or the early stages of the big bang, or even for the chirp of gravitational radiation emitted by coalescing compact binaries.


Major relativity conferences such as GR16 traditionally include an overview talk on gravitational wave (GW) sources. Some excellent recent ones include those by Flanagan , Finn , and Bender et al. .

Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors.

  • Meers
  • Physics
    Physical review. D, Particles and fields
  • 1988
It is shown that it may be made to further enhance the sensitivity within a narrow bandwidth, becoming tuned recycling, and the various sensitivity-bandwidth combinations, together with the tuning properties, are discussed.

Determining the Hubble constant from gravitational wave observations

I report here how gravitational wave observations can be used to determine the Hubble constant, H0. The nearly monochromatic gravitational waves emitted by the decaying orbit of an ultra–compact,

Measurement of optical path fluctuations due to residual gas in the LIGO 40-meter interferometer

Statistical fluctuations in the column density of residual gas in the beams of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector induce noise in the measured optical path. Resulting limits on the

Gravitational-wave observations as a tool for testing relativistic gravity

Gravitational-wave observations can be powerful tools in the testing of relativistic theories of gravity--perhaps the only tools for distinguishing between certain extant theories in the foreseeable

Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors.

The performance of thermally distorted interferometers is treated quantitatively, and the two schemes for increasing the optical path, the delay-line and Fabry-P\'erot methods, are compared.

Mirror-orientation noise in a Fabry-Perot interferometer gravitational wave detector.

The influence of angular mirror- Orientation errors on the length of a Fabry-Perot resonator is analyzed geometrically and a simple prediction of the spectrum of short-term cavity length fluctuations resulting from mirror-orientation noise is made.

The Physics of Supernova Explosions

The modern study of supernovae involves many aspects: presupernova stellar evolution, the physics of the explosions themselves, observations at all wavelengths of the outbursts and their remnants,

Photon-noise-limited laser transducer for gravitational antenna.

This work has constructed and tested a laser interferometer transducer for a long, wideband, laser-linked gravitational radiation antenna and measured the smallest vibrational displacement measured directly with a laser to date.