• Corpus ID: 6509192

L-Carnitine: therapeutic applications of a conditionally-essential amino acid.

  title={L-Carnitine: therapeutic applications of a conditionally-essential amino acid.},
  author={Gregory S. Kelly},
  journal={Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic},
  volume={3 5},
  • G. Kelly
  • Published 1 October 1998
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic
A trimethylated amino acid roughly similar in structure to choline, carnitine is a cofactor required for transformation of free long-chain fatty acids into acylcarnitines, and for their subsequent transport into the mitochondrial matrix, where they undergo beta-oxidation for cellular energy production. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is the primary fuel source in heart and skeletal muscle, pointing to the relative importance of this nutrient for proper function in these tissues. Although L… 

Figures from this paper

l-carnitine: Nutrition, pathology, and health benefits

Pharmacokinetics of L-Carnitine

The renal clearance of L-carnitine increases after exogenous administration, approaching GFR after high intravenous doses, and many forms of secondary carnitine deficiency, including some drug-induced disorders, arise from impaired renal tubular re absorption.

Carnitine and Acylcarnitines

Previous research associated with the homeostasis and pharmaco-kinetics of L-carnitine and its esters are examined, and potential areas of future research are highlighted, to adequately characterize metabolic status.

L-Carnitine Ameliorates Oxidative Damage due to Chronic Renal Failure in Rats

L-carnitine, possibly via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorates oxidative organ injury and CRF-induced dysfunction of the aorta and corpus cavernosum and suggests that L-c Carnitine supplementation may have some benefit in CRF patients.

[Role of L-carnitine in metabolism, nutrition and therapy].

L-carnitine plays an important role in the translocation of acetyl moieties from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm for acetylcholine synthesis in neurones and other roles--include removal of excess acyl groups, peroxisomal fatty-acid oxidation, and antioxidant activity.

Acetyl‐l‐carnitine for the Treatment of HIV Lipoatrophy

Carnitine supplementation for this antiretroviral toxicity is reviewed, and the available data from several small studies are inconclusive, although further research into this promising agent is warranted.

The Role of Carnitine in the Male Reproductive System

Research to uncover the many characteristics and mechanisms of action of carnitine in somatic and germ cells may provide insights into the pathophysiology of germ cell apoptosis, the prevention of germcell death, and possibly specific therapy of some forms of infertility.

Antimicrobial efficacy of L-carnitine

At these concentrations L-carnitine chloride can possibly be used as a safe local antimicrobial agent and could also contribute to the maintenance of a pathogen free environment.

An Overview of the Dietary Ingredient Carnitine




Carnitine supplementation in the premature.

Impairment of lipid metabolism in preterm infants maintained on carnitine-free feeding regimens seems to be established, in turn, numerous supplemental works suggest a rationale for prevention of decrease of body reserves.

Carnitine and Physical Exercise

There is currently no scientific basis for healthy individuals or athletes to use carnitine supplementation to improve exercise performance, and critical reflections and current scientific-based knowledge are important to understand the implications of reduced or increased carnitines concentrations in vivo.

Plasma carnitine insufficiency and effectiveness of L‐carnitine therapy in patients with mitochondril myopathy

Patients diagnosed as having plasma carnitine insufficiency or deficiency were treated with L‐carnitine and Muscle weakness improved in 19 of 20 patients, failure to thrive in 4 of 8, encephalopathy in 1 of 9, and cardiomyopathy in 8 of 8 patients.

[Carnitine in therapy of placental insufficiency--initial experiences].

A tendency towards a profit in carnitine treatment for placental insufficiency seems to be real, despite of the small number of patients, and a spontaneous improvement of fetal growth.

High dose L-carnitine improves immunologic and metabolic parameters in AIDS patients.

The data suggest that in vivo L-carnitine could prove useful in ameliorating both the immune response and lipid metabolism in patients with AIDS, irrespective of initial serum carnitines levels.

Effect of L-carnitine on the zidovudine-induced destruction of human myotubes. Part I: L-carnitine prevents the myotoxicity of AZT in vitro.

L-carnitine, used concurrently with AZT, prevents the human myotubes from the AZT-associated destruction, preserves the structure and volume of mitochondria and prevents the accumulation of lipids.

[Metabolism and action of L-carnitine: its possible role in sperm tail function].

  • A. LenziF. LombardoL. GandiniF. Dondero
  • Biology
    Archivio italiano di urologia, nefrologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale dell'Associazione per la ricerca in urologia = Urological, nephrological, and andrological sciences
  • 1992
The dosage of this substance in the evaluation of the integrity of the processes of maturation of the spermatozoa was proposed and there is growing interest in the use of L-carnitine as a therapeutic tool in some forms of male infertility.

L-carnitine in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

It was concluded that L-carnitine therapy in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy led to modest improvement in left ventricular function.

Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of L-carnitine in congestive heart failure.

In the group treated with L-carnitine, a distinct improvement was observed in both subjective and objective conditions; reduced heart rate, edema and dyspnea, increased diuresis and a marked reduction in daily digitalis consumption.