The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit held that an employer-provided health insurance plan policy of denying coverage for infertility treatments does not violate the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), or Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Krauel underwent artificial insemination and GIFT (gamete intrafallopian tube transfer) prior to pregnancy and birth. She unsuccessfully sought reimbursement for those costs from her medical insurer. The court held that infertility does not substantially affect what are "major life activities" within the meaning of the ADA. The infertility exclusion applies equally to all insured employees, male of female, disabled or not, and thus does not thwart the purpose of the ADA, nor does it constitute a discriminatory sex-based classification under Title VII. Furthermore, infertility is not a medical condition related to pregnancy or childbirth, and so falls outside the scope of the PDA.