Kratom exposures reported to United States poison control centers: 2011–2017

@article{Post2019KratomER,
  title={Kratom exposures reported to United States poison control centers: 2011–2017},
  author={Sarah E. Post and Henry A. Spiller and Thitphalak Chounthirath and Gary A. Smith},
  journal={Clinical Toxicology},
  year={2019},
  volume={57},
  pages={847 - 854}
}
Abstract Context: Kratom, or Mitragyna speciosa, is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia that has gained national attention in the United States for its increased use in the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain, as well as for concerns about its safety. Methods: This study analyzes exposures to kratom reported to poison control centers (PCCs) in the United States during 2011–2017 from the National Poison Data System (NPDS). Discussion: From 2011 through 2017, 1807 kratom exposures were… 
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A comprehensive overview of the available science on kratom is provided that has the potential to i clarity for healthcare providers and patients and makes recommendations for best practices in working with people who use kratom.
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TLDR
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References

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TLDR
CDC characterized kratom exposures that were reported to poison centers and uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) during January 2010-December 2015.
Kratom Abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: A Five-Year Experience
TLDR
A retrospective review of Kratom exposure cases from the RPC toxic surveillance system found most cases in both groups had good prognostic outcome, and there was a baby with withdrawal symptoms who was delivered from a chronic Kratom-abusing mother, suggesting possible exposure via the transplacental route.
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TLDR
This report highlights the current scientific and legal controversies regarding kratom and its mitragynine constituents, which prompted a massive response from kratom advocates.
Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa) Liver Injury: A Comprehensive Review
TLDR
Kratom likely causes liver injury based on the totality of low-quality human evidence, and, in the context of epidemiologic, animal, and mechanistic studies, it remains unclear which subgroups of users are at heightened risk.
Kratom Adulterated with Phenylethylamine and Associated Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Linking Toxicologists and Public Health Officials to Identify Dangerous Adulterants
TLDR
Medical toxicologists should form working relationships with laboratories and public health officials to aid in early identification of adulterated products that carry risk to the general population.
Pharmacology of Kratom: An Emerging Botanical Agent With Stimulant, Analgesic and Opioid-Like Effects
TLDR
Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal.
The pharmacology and toxicology of kratom: from traditional herb to drug of abuse
TLDR
There are currently no standard analytical screening techniques for mitragynine and its metabolites following ingestion limiting its detection to more sophisticated techniques like liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine kratom use.
The Scheduling of Kratom and Selective Use of Data
TLDR
The current article examines the evidence the DEA cited to support their decision to emergency schedule kratom and the degree and type of media coverage of kratom to determine if a media-driven drug panic occurred.
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