Kratom Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers

@article{Forrester2013KratomER,
  title={Kratom Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers},
  author={Mathias B. Forrester},
  journal={Journal of Addictive Diseases},
  year={2013},
  volume={32},
  pages={396 - 400}
}
  • M. Forrester
  • Published 1 October 2013
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Addictive Diseases
Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2… 
Notes from the Field: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exposures Reported to Poison Centers - United States, 2010-2015.
TLDR
CDC characterized kratom exposures that were reported to poison centers and uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) during January 2010-December 2015.
Natural psychoactive substance-related exposures reported to United States poison control centers, 2000–2017
TLDR
While rates of exposure to most natural psychoactive substances decreased during the 18-year study period, rates for marijuana, nutmeg, and kratom increased significantly.
Kratom: A growing substance of abuse in the United States.
TLDR
Kratom is an emerging drug of abuse in the United States and its use is increasing in individuals who may seek to experience an opioidlike "high" as well as to help reduce withdrawal effects from other opioids.
Histologic Characterization of Kratom Use-Associated Liver Injury
TLDR
This is the first case report detailing the histology of kratom use-associated liver injury and the patient improved clinically and biochemically and was discharged 8 days after the initial presentation.
Update on the Pharmacology and Legal Status of Kratom
  • W. Prozialeck
  • Environmental Science
    The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
  • 2016
TLDR
This report highlights the current scientific and legal controversies regarding kratom and its mitragynine constituents, which prompted a massive response from kratom advocates.
Acute liver injury following short-term use of the herbal supplement kratom
TLDR
A patient who presented to the ED with jaundice and acute liver injury, which after a thorough exclusion of alternative causes was attributed to kratom use is described.
Pharmacologic and clinical assessment of kratom: An update.
  • C. White
  • Medicine
    American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
  • 2019
TLDR
Kratom has a unique pharmacologic profile that might offer advantages over other opioids, but its high abuse liability, potential for drug interactions and adverse events, and inadequate research into the balance of benefits to harm are concerning.
Cholestatic hepatitis from prolonged kratom use: A case report
TLDR
This case report describes intrahepatic cholestasis arising after intake of maeng da kratom, the Malay term used for extract derived from Mitragyna speciosa, which has been increasingly used in Western countries and the United States to counteract fatigue and anxiety and relieve opioid withdrawal symptoms.
Prevalence and description of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) use in the United States: A cross-sectional study.
TLDR
Estimated United States past-year prevalence of kratom use is 0.8%, and kratom users tend to have more serious substance abuse profiles than non-users or users of cannabis, alcohol, or cigarettes, the first description of k Mitragyna speciosa use at the national level.
Kratom policy: The challenge of balancing therapeutic potential with public safety
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 43 REFERENCES
Seizure and Coma Following Kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) Exposure
TLDR
A rare case of Kratom toxicity characterized by a seizure and coma confirmed by urinary analysis of mitragynine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.
2006 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS)
TLDR
NPDS represents a valuable national resource to collect and monitor US poisoning exposure cases, offers one of the few real-time surveillance systems in existence, provides useful data and is a model for public health surveillance.
A Drug Fatality Involving Kratom
TLDR
The autopsy was remarkable only for pulmonary congestion and edema and a distended bladder, both of which are consistent with, though not diagnostic of, opiate use.
Unintentional fatal intoxications with mitragynine and O-desmethyltramadol from the herbal blend Krypton.
TLDR
It is believed that the addition of the potent mu-receptor agonist O-desmethyltramadol to powdered leaves from Kratom contributed to the unintentional death of the nine cases presented and intake of Krypton is not as harmless as it often is described on internet websites.
2011 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 29th Annual Report
TLDR
These data support the continued value of poison center expertise and need for specialized medical toxicology information to manage the more severe exposures, despite a decrease in calls involving less severe exposures.
Self-treatment of opioid withdrawal using kratom (Mitragynia speciosa korth).
TLDR
The predominant alkaloid of kratom, mitragynine, binds mu- and kappa-opioid receptors, but has additional receptor affinities that might augment its effectiveness at mitigating opioid withdrawal.
An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration
TLDR
An evidence-based systematic review of kratom by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale.
A study of kratom eaters in Thailand.
TLDR
Thirty male and female cases of kratom addiction were selected from the Nondhaburi province and from the suburbs of Bangkok for the purpose of an intensive study, and the interview method was used with a questionnaire consisting of 30 items.
Analysis of mitragynine and metabolites in human urine for detecting the use of the psychoactive plant kratom.
TLDR
Both ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods have been developed and validated for monitoring the major alkaloids and metabolites found in urine following kratom use and the presence of analytes is confirmed by an information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion procedure generating full fragmentation data used to positively identify detected analytes.
...
...