Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.): A description on the ethnobotany, alkaloid chemistry, and neuropharmacology

  title={Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.): A description on the ethnobotany, alkaloid chemistry, and neuropharmacology},
  author={Surash Ramanathan and Francisco Le{\'o}n and Nelson Jeng Yeou Chear and Siti R. Yusof and Vikneswaran Murugaiyah and Lance R. McMahon and Christopher R. McCurdy},
Kratom Alkaloids: Interactions With Enzymes, Receptors, and Cellular Barriers
Specific areas that are of importance are highlighted to give insights into the mechanistic of kratom alkaloids pharmacological actions, including their interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes and predictions of clinical drug-drug interactions, receptor-binding properties, interactions with cellular barriers in regards to barrier permeability, involvement of membrane transporters, and alteration of barrier function when exposed to the alkaloid.


Alkaloid Profiles and Activity in Different Mitragyna speciosa Strains
The Green Malay extract has shown remarkable and significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity in mouse hot plate and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests, and was chosen for in vivo pharmacological studies.
Chemistry and pharmacology of analgesic indole alkaloids from the rubiaceous plant, Mitragyna speciosa.
  • H. Takayama
  • Chemistry, Biology
    Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • 2004
The potent opioid agonistic activities of mitragynine, the major constituent of this plant, and its analogues were found in in vitro and in vivo experiments and the mechanisms underlying the analgesic activity were clarified, and 7-hydroxymitragynines, a minor constituent of M. speciosa, was found to exhibit potent antinociceptive activity in mice.
Behavioral and neurochemical characterization of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) extract
The results obtained in drug-naïve mice demonstrate weak behavioral effects mediated via μ and λ opioid receptors, indicating that the analgesic effect is mediated via κ opioid receptors.
The botanical origin of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa; Rubiaceae) available as abused drugs in the Japanese markets
The ITS sequence analysis of the commercial kratoms revealed that most of them were derived from M. speciosa or closely related plants, while the others were made from the same tribe plant as M.Speciosa.
Current perspectives on the impact of Kratom use
It is notable that Kratom can cause herb–drug interactions, especially with other central nervous system -active substances, and consumers may be exposed to adulterated or contaminated products, especially if purchased through websites or the darknet.
Simultaneous analysis of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and other alkaloids in the psychotropic plant “kratom” (Mitragyna speciosa) by LC-ESI-MS
The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical plant known as “kratom,” have been traditionally used as a substitute for opium in Thailand and Malaysia. Mitragynine, a major constituent of M. speciosa,