Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): worldwide issues.

@article{Ramanathan2020KratomS,
  title={Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): worldwide issues.},
  author={Surash Ramanathan and Christopher R. McCurdy},
  journal={Current Opinion in Psychiatry},
  year={2020}
}
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To inform readers about the increasingly popular Western dietary supplement, kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) and how the products are available in the Western world compared with traditional Southeast Asian use. Kratom has been traditionally used for increasing stamina of outdoor laborers (farmers), mood enhancement, pain, and opium addiction. Interestingly, kratom has been reported to have a paradoxical effect in that stimulant feelings, and sedative feelings can be obtained… 
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References

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Social Functioning of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Users in Malaysia
TLDR
It is suggested that chronic kratom administration does not significantly impair social functioning of users in a natural context in Malaysia, despite being dependent on kratom for prolonged periods of time.
Current perspectives on the impact of Kratom use
TLDR
It is notable that Kratom can cause herb–drug interactions, especially with other central nervous system -active substances, and consumers may be exposed to adulterated or contaminated products, especially if purchased through websites or the darknet.
Behavioral and neurochemical characterization of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) extract
TLDR
The results obtained in drug-naïve mice demonstrate weak behavioral effects mediated via μ and λ opioid receptors, indicating that the analgesic effect is mediated via κ opioid receptors.
7-Hydroxymitragynine Is an Active Metabolite of Mitragynine and a Key Mediator of Its Analgesic Effects
TLDR
It is found that mitragynine is converted in vitro in both mouse and human liver preparations to the much more potent mu-opioid receptor agonist 7-hydroxymitagynine and that this conversion is mediated by cytochrome P450 3A isoforms.
Opioid receptors and legal highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom
TLDR
Both Kratom alkaloids are reported to activate supraspinal mu- and delta- opioid receptors, explaining their use by chronic narcotics users to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms.
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