Knowledge of the Firm, Combinative Capabilities, and the Replication of Technology

  title={Knowledge of the Firm, Combinative Capabilities, and the Replication of Technology},
  author={Bruce Kogut and Udo Zander},
  journal={Organization Science},
How should we understand why firms exist? A prevailing view has been that they serve to keep in check the transaction costs arising from the self-interested motivations of individuals. We develop in this article the argument that what firms do better than markets is the sharing and transfer of the knowledge of individuals and groups within an organization. This knowledge consists of information (e.g., who knows what) and of know-how (e.g., how to organize a research team). What is central to… 
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