OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to analyze the knowledge, approaches, and practices of pediatricians participating in a regional pediatric conference regarding functional constipation (FC) to identify knowledge gaps. METHODS Cross-sectional regional study based on a semistructured questionnaire related to the Rome III criteria and the participant profiles. RESULTS Of 400 questionnaires distributed, 264 (66.0%) were completed. Most pediatricians (76.7%) did not recognize the Rome III criteria, but the majority did recognize the following risk factors for FC: low-fiber diet (97.8%), family history (86.6%), onset of toilet training (76.4%), and weaning (62.4%). Foods considered high in fiber were oats (95.7%), leafy vegetables (95.3%), and wheat bran (93.2%). Digital rectal examination was not performed by 57.7% of nongastroenterologists. Complementary examinations were ordered in 27.5% and 72.5% of patients by general pediatricians and pediatric gastroenterologists, respectively, although the sample of gastroenterologists was not representative. The most prescribed drugs by nongastroenterologists were mineral oil (72.6%), magnesium hydroxide (52.1%), lactulose (41.0%), and polyethylene glycol (25.2%). Pediatric gastroenterologists prescribed magnesium hydroxide (91.7%), polyethylene glycol (91.7%), and mineral oil (58.3%). Most pediatricians (70.0%) considered the average treatment duration to be less than 1 year, although gastroenterologists considered it to be more than 1 year (54.6%). CONCLUSIONS The knowledge of pediatricians regarding FC is inadequate. Constipation may not receive the public health attention it deserves within pediatric residency programs. The authors suggest that better education regarding FC should be included in medical school and residency program curricula to improve patient care.