Kinship and altruism: a cross-cultural experimental study.

@article{Madsen2007KinshipAA,
  title={Kinship and altruism: a cross-cultural experimental study.},
  author={Elainie Alenk{\ae}r Madsen and Richard J. Tunney and George Fieldman and Henry Plotkin and Robin I. M. Dunbar and Jeanne M. Richardson and David McFarland},
  journal={British journal of psychology},
  year={2007},
  volume={98 Pt 2},
  pages={
          339-59
        }
}
Humans are characterized by an unusual level of prosociality. Despite this, considerable indirect evidence suggests that biological kinship plays an important role in altruistic behaviour. All previous reports of the influence of kin selection on human altruism have, however, used correlational (rather than experimental) designs, or imposed only a hypothetical or negligible time cost on participants. Since these research designs fail either to control for confounding variables or to meet the… 

Figures from this paper

Altruism in social networks: evidence for a 'kinship premium'.

TLDR
Participants were more altruistic towards kin than would be expected if altruism was dependent on emotional closeness alone - a phenomenon the results have implications for the ongoing debate about the extent to which kin relations and friendships are distinct kinds of social relationships, and how to measure the 'strength of ties' in social networks.

Altruism and reciprocity among friends and kin in a Tibetan village

Induced Altruism in Religious, Military, and Terrorist Organizations

TLDR
Cross-cultural data on several examples of extremely costly altruism—vows of celibacy, suicide bombings, and combat suicide—as exhibited in organizational and institutional contexts are reviewed, suggesting that cross-cultural analyses could provide an effective avenue through which to test this and other evolutionary theories related to human unreciprocated altruism in non-kin contexts.

Evidence of an Alternative Currency for Altruism in Laboratory-Based Experiments

TLDR
Findings of three experiments that use a novel and simple laboratory-based task that measures altruism based on the amount of time participants are willing to spend as a cost to help others provide clear support for the use and value of this novel task in future research.

Do Relatives With Greater Reproductive Potential Get Help First?: A Test of the Inclusive Fitness Explanation of Kin Altruism

TLDR
A demonstration of the direct causal effects of reproductive potential on helping intentions, supporting the inclusive fitness explanation of kin altruism is provided.

Altruistic Behavior among Twins

TLDR
The genders of the subject and of the co-twin, not genetic relatedness, were the best predictors of aggressive altruistic intentions.

Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

  • H. LuLei Chang
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental child psychology
  • 2016

Culture and the Evolution of Human Sociality 22

TLDR
This chapter discusses the role of social emotions in maintaining cooperative societies and reviews recent work that suggests that population size can set limits on the degree of cultural complexity that can be maintained, suggesting a two-way interaction between culture and sociality.

“Brothers” in Arms: Does Metaphorizing Kinship Increase Approval of Parochial Altruism?

Parochial altruism is manifested in the most violent of conflicts. Although it makes evolutionary sense for kin, many non-kin groups also behave parochially altruistically in response to threat from
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 110 REFERENCES

Explaining altruistic behavior in humans

The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism

  • R. Trivers
  • Psychology
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1971
A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the

Strong reciprocity, human cooperation, and the enforcement of social norms

TLDR
Strong reciprocity cannot be rationalized as an adaptive trait by the leading evolutionary theories of human cooperation (in other words, kin selection, reciprocal altruism, indirect reciprocity, and costly signaling theory), however, multilevel selection theories of cultural evolution are consistent with strong reciprocity.

Testing Hamilton's rule with competition between relatives

TLDR
The level of fighting between males shows no correlation with the estimated relatedness of interacting males, but is negatively correlated with future mating opportunities, indicating that across species, the effects of relatedness and competition between relatives can be separated.

Group Nepotism and Human Kinship1

TLDR
I conclude by focusing on two: demand sharing of food among subsistence hunters and the psychology of ethnocentrism, which may have implications for a number of research areas in the social sciences.

Some Neo-Darwinian Decision Rules for Altruism: Weighing Cues for Inclusive Fitness as a Function of the Biological Importance of the Decision

A neo-Darwinian heuristic for decisions involving altruism is'hypothesized in this article. Following W. Hamilton's (1964) analysis of inclusive fitness, the assumption of this study is that

Nominal kinship cues facilitate altruism

TLDR
It is shown that names elicit altruism because they function as salient cues of kinship, and a shared surname was more effective than a shared first name only if it was relatively uncommon.

Emotional Closeness as a Mediator of the Effect of Genetic Relatedness on Altruism

TLDR
Results showed that emotional closeness is an important proximal cause of altruism that partially mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on willingness to act altruistically.

Selfishness examined: Cooperation in the absence of egoistic incentives.

Social dilemmas occur when the pursuit of self-interest by individuals in a group leads to less than optimal collective outcomes for everyone in the group. A critical assumption in the human sciences
...