Kinetic mechanism of AKT/PKB enzyme family.


AKT/PKB is a phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a critical role in the signal transduction of receptors. It also serves as an oncogene in the tumorigenesis of cancer cells when aberrantly activated by genetic lesions of the PTEN tumor suppressor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and receptor tyrosine kinase overexpression. Here we have characterized and compared kinetic mechanisms of the three AKT isoforms. Initial velocity studies revealed that all AKT isozymes follow the sequential kinetic mechanism by which an enzyme-substrate ternary complex forms before the product release. The empirically derived kinetic parameters are apparently different among the isoforms. AKT2 showed the highest Km value for ATP, and AKT3 showed the highest kcat value. The patterns of product inhibition of AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 by ADP were all consistent with an ordered substrate addition mechanism with ATP binding to the enzymes prior to the peptide substrate. Further analysis of steady state kinetics of AKT1 in the presence of dead-end inhibitors supported the finding and suggested that the AKT family of kinases catalyzes reactions via an Ordered Bi Bi sequential mechanism with ATP binding to the enzyme prior to peptide substrate and ADP being released after the phosphopeptide product. These results suggest that ATP is an initiating factor for the catalysis of AKT enzymes and may play a role in the regulation AKT enzyme activity in cells.

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@article{Zhang2006KineticMO, title={Kinetic mechanism of AKT/PKB enzyme family.}, author={Xiaoling Zhang and Shiwen Zhang and Harvey K. Yamane and Robert P Wahl and Arisha Ali and Julie A. Lofgren and Richard L. Kendall}, journal={The Journal of biological chemistry}, year={2006}, volume={281 20}, pages={13949-56} }